Saturated Concentrations of Gases in Water

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Description

Calculates the saturated concentration of several gases in water for a given temperature, salinity and pressure.

Usage

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gas_satconc(S = 35, t = 25, P = 1.013253,
        species =c("He","Ne","N2","O2","Ar","Kr","CH4","CO2","N2O"),
        atm = atmComp(species))

Arguments

S

Salinity (dimensionless),

t

Temperature, degrees C,

P

True pressure, bar

species

character vector with gasses whose saturated concentration should be estimated.

atm

The number of moles of the gas per unit mole of air in the atmosphere, the "mixing ratio". When present, this overrules the species argument. When unspecified, the value from atmComp for the species is taken.

Value

The saturated concentration of the gas in mmol/m3.

Note

Compared to the table in Sarmiento and Gruber, there is a slight deviation for N2O, and He.

CO2 is OK for temperature 0 only.

Author(s)

Karline Soetaert <karline.soetaert@nioz.nl>

References

Sarmiento JL and Gruber N, 2006. Ocean Biogeochemical Dynamics. Princeton University Press, Princeton. p 85.

who cite:

for He and Ne: Weiss R, 1971. Solubility of helium and neon in water and seawater. Journ. Chem. Eng. Data 16, 235-241.

N2, O2 and Ar: Weiss R, 1970. The solubility of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon in water and seawater. Deep-Sea Res. 17, 721-35.

Kr: Weiss R and Kyser TK, 1978. Solubility of Krypton in water and seawater. Journ. Chem. Eng. Data 23, 69-72.

Rn: Hackbusch 1979. Eine Methode zur Bestimmung der Diffusions-, Löslichkeits un Permeabilitats Konstanten von Radon-222 in Wasser und Meereswasser. Dissertation, University of Heidelberg, Germany.

CH4: Wiesenburg DA and Guinasso JNL, 1979. Equilibrium solubilities of methane, carbon monoxide and hydrogen in water and sea water. Journ. Chem. Eng. Data 24, 256-360.

CO2 and N2O: Weiss R and Price BA, 1980. Nitrous oxide solubility in wate and sewater. Mar. Chem. 8, 347-359.

CFC-11 and CFC-12: Warner MJ and Weiss R, 1985. Solubilities of chlorofluorocarbons 11 and 12 in water and sewater. Deep-Sea Res. 32, 1485-1497.

SF6: Bullister et al., 2002. The solubility of sulfur hexafluroide in water and sewater. Deep-Sea Res. I, 49, 175-188.

CCl4: Bullister JL and Wisegarver DP, 1998. The solubility of carbon tetrachloride in water and seawater. Deep-Sea Res. I, 1285-1302.

See Also

gas_O2sat, gas_schmidt,gas_solubility,gas_transfer, atmComp, vapor

Examples

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gas_satconc(species = "O2")
Temp <- seq(from = 0, to = 30, by = 0.1)
Sal  <- seq(from = 0, to = 35, by = 0.1)

mf  <- par(mfrow = c(1,2))

species <- c("N2", "CO2", "O2", "CH4", "N2O")
gsat  <- gas_satconc(t = Temp, species = species)

matplot(Temp, gsat, type = "l", xlab = "temperature", log = "y", lty = 1,
     ylab = "mmol/m3", main = "Saturated conc (S=35)", lwd = 2)
legend("right", col = 1:5, lwd = 2, legend = species)

gsat  <- gas_satconc(S = Sal, species = species)
matplot(Sal, gsat, type = "l", xlab = "salinity", log = "y", lty = 1,
     ylab = "mmol/m3", main = "Saturated conc (T=20)", lwd = 2)
legend("right", col = 1:5, lwd = 2, legend = species)


par(mfrow = mf)

## generate table 3.2.4 from Sarmiento and Gruber
Temp <- seq (0, 30, by = 5)
## saturated concentrations in mmol/m3, at 1 atm.
A <- data.frame(cbind( t = Temp,
            N2  = gas_satconc(t = Temp, species = "N2"),
            O2  = gas_satconc(t = Temp, species = "O2"),
            CO2 = gas_satconc(t = Temp, species = "CO2"),
            Ar  = gas_satconc(t = Temp, species = "Ar")))
format(A, digits = 4)
## table values
## at  0 dg C: 635.6   359.1  23.37  17.44
## at 20 dg C: 425.7   230.5  11.61  11.29
## note the deviations for CO2 (20dg)!

## saturated concentrations in micromol/m3, at 1 atm.
AA <- data.frame(cbind(t = Temp,
            N2O = gas_satconc(t = Temp, species = "N2O")*1000,
            Ne  = gas_satconc(t = Temp, species = "Ne" )*1000,
            Kr  = gas_satconc(t = Temp, species = "Kr" )*1000,
            CH4 = gas_satconc(t = Temp, species = "CH4")*1000,
            He  = gas_satconc(t = Temp, species = "He" )*1000))
format(AA, digits = 4)
## table values
## at  0 dgC: 14.84 8.11  4.33  3.44  1.81
## at 20 dgC: 7.16  6.94  2.50  2.12  1.70
## Note: different for N2O

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