Description Usage Arguments Details Value Author(s) References Examples
Calculate a weighted mean, betweengroup standard deviation and standard error on the weighted mean using the MandelPaule algorithm.
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x 
numeric vector of mean values for groups, or (if 
u 
numeric vector of standard deviations or standard uncertainties
associated with the values 
n 
integer vector of numbers in each group. If 
groups 
factor, or vetor which can be coerced to factor, of groups. If present, 
... 
Additional parameters passed to other functions. 
tol 
numeric tolerance; iteration stops when the variance step size drops below 
maxiter 
numeric maximum number of iterations 
The MandelPaule algorithm finds the betweenmethod variance by iteratively solving the
equation relating the weighted mean to the weighting factor applied. The weighting factor is
the inverse of the sum of the standard error in x
and the betweengroup variance.
If the iterative procedure produces a negative estimate for the betweengroup variance, the betweengroup variance is set to zero.
For the default method, if u
is present and n=NULL
, u
is interpreted as
a vector of standard uncertainties or standard errors. If n
is not NULL
, u
is interpreted as a vector of standard deviations and standard errors are calculated as
u/sqrt(n)
.
If groups
is not NULL
, x
is interpreted as a vector of individual
observations grouped by groups
, and the algorithm is applied to the corresponding
group means and standard errors.
If maxiter
is set less than 1, no iterations are performed and the consensus mean
is returned as NA
.
mandel.paule
is an alias for mpaule
retained for backward compatibility.
A loc.est object; see loc.est for details. In the returned object, df
is
set to n1 where n is the number of nonNA
observations or
group means as appropriate, and method.details
is returned as :
var.between 
the estimated betweengroup variance) 
iter 
the number of iterations taken 
converged 

S. Cowen simon.cowen@lgc.co.uk with amendments by S. L. R. Ellison.
Paule, R. C. and Mandel, J. (1982), J Res Nat Bur Stand, 87, (5) 377385
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