# R/KendallCCA.R In mixedCCA: Sparse Canonical Correlation Analysis for High-Dimensional Mixed Data

#### Documented in find_w12biclambdaseq_generatemixedCCAmyrccstandardCCA

#' @title Internal data-driven lambda sequence generating function.
#'
#' @description This internal function generates lambda sequence of length \code{nlamseq} equally spaced on a logarithmic scale. Since this is for sparse CCA, it returns a list of two vectors. Each vector will be used for each data set \eqn{X1} and \eqn{X2}. And \eqn{w1} and \eqn{w2} denote canonical vector for each data set.
#'
#' @param nlamseq The length of lambda sequence
#' @param lam.eps The smallest value for lambda as a fraction of maximum lambda value
#' @param Sigma1 Covariance/correlation matrix of \eqn{X1} (p1 by p1)
#' @param Sigma2 Covariance/correlation matrix of \eqn{X2} (p2 by p2)
#' @param Sigma12 Covariance/correlation matrix betweem \eqn{X1} and \eqn{X2}
#' @param w1init Initial value for canonical vector \eqn{w1}
#' @param w2init Initial value for canonical vector \eqn{w2}
#'
#' @return \code{lambdaseq_generate} returns a list of length 2. Each vector is of the same length \code{nlamseq} and will be used for each data set separately.
#' @export
#'
lambdaseq_generate <- function(nlamseq = 20, lam.eps = 1e-02, Sigma1, Sigma2, Sigma12, w1init = NULL, w2init = NULL){

p1 <- nrow(Sigma1); p2 <- nrow(Sigma2)
if (is.null(w2init)) {
w2init <- rep(1, p2)
}
w2init <- normalizedW(w2init, Sigma2)
init.lamseq1 <- max(abs(Sigma12%*%w2init)) # estimated w1 for different (but close) lamseq could be used

if (is.null(w1init)) {
w1init <- rep(1, p1)
}
w1init <- normalizedW(w1init, Sigma1)
init.lamseq2 <- max(abs(t(Sigma12)%*%w1init)) # estimated w2 for different (but close) lamseq could be used

lamseq <- list("vector")
# lamseq values in decreasing order.
lamseq[] <- exp(seq(log(init.lamseq1), log(lam.eps*init.lamseq1), length.out = nlamseq))
lamseq[] <- exp(seq(log(init.lamseq2), log(lam.eps*init.lamseq2), length.out = nlamseq))

return(lamseq)
}

#' @title Internal mixedCCA function finding w1 and w2 given R1, R2 and R12
#'
#' @param n Sample size
#' @param R1 Correlation matrix of dataset \code{X1} (p1 by p1)
#' @param R2 Correlation matrix of dataset \code{X2} (p2 by p2)
#' @param R12 Correlation matrix between the dataset \code{X1} and the dataset \code{X2} (p1 by p2)
#' @param lamseq1 A sequence of lambda values for the datasets \code{X1}. It can be a scalar (a vector of one value). should be the same length with lamseq2.
#' @param lamseq2 A sequence of lambda values for the datasets \code{X2}. It can be a scalar (a vector of one value). should be the same length with lamseq1.
#' @param w1init An initial vector of length p1 for canonical direction \eqn{w1}.
#' @param w2init An initial vector of length p1 for canonical direction \eqn{w2}.
#' @param BICtype Either 1 or 2: For more details for two options, see the reference.
#' @param maxiter The maximum number of iterations allowed.
#' @param tol The desired accuracy (convergence tolerance).
#' @param trace If \code{trace = TRUE}, progress per each iteration will be printed. The default value is \code{FALSE}.
#' @param lassoverbose If \code{lassoverbose = TRUE}, all warnings from lassobic optimization regarding convergence will be printed. The default value is \code{lassoverbose = FALSE}.
#'
#'
#' @return \code{find_w12bic} returns a data.frame containing
#' \itemize{
#'       \item{w1: }{estimated canonical direction \eqn{w1}.}
#'       \item{w2: }{estimated canonical direction \eqn{w2}.}
#'       \item{w1trace: }{a matrix, of which column is the estimated canonical direction \eqn{w1} at each iteration. The number of columns is the number of iteration until the convergence.}
#'       \item{w2trace: }{a matrix, of which column is the estimated canonical direction \eqn{w2} at each iteration. The number of columns is the number of iteration until the convergence.}
#'       \item{lam1.iter: }{For each iteration, what lambda value is selected for \eqn{w1} is stored.}
#'       \item{lam2.iter: }{For each iteration, what lambda value is selected for \eqn{w2} is stored.}
#'       \item{obj: }{objective function value without penalty: \eqn{w1^T * R12 * w2}. If lamseq1 and lamseq2 are scalar, then original objective function including penalty part will be used.}
#' }
#'
#' @references
#' Yoon G., Carroll R.J. and Gaynanova I. (2020) "Sparse semiparametric canonical correlation analysis for data of mixed types" <doi:10.1093/biomet/asaa007>.
#' @export
#'
find_w12bic <- function(n, R1, R2, R12, lamseq1, lamseq2, w1init, w2init, BICtype, maxiter = 100, tol = 1e-2, trace = FALSE, lassoverbose = FALSE){

p1 = ncol(R1)
p2 = ncol(R2)

w1init <- normalizedW(w1init, R1)
w2init <- normalizedW(w2init, R2)

# lassoverbose = TRUE will be converted to 1. lassoverbose = FALSE will be converted to 0 for "lassobic" cpp function
lassoverbose <- as.numeric(lassoverbose)

diffobj = 1000
iter = 0
w1 <- w2 <- c()
# For tracking the progress
wmat1 <- wmat2 <- lam1.iter <- lam2.iter <- obj <- c()

while( iter <= maxiter & abs(diffobj) > tol ){
iter = iter + 1
### for w1
d = R12%*%w2init
ind = NULL # do not want to use previous iteration results.
if((max(lamseq1) >= max(abs(d)) | iter == 1) & length(lamseq1) > 1){
# since we're not interested in zero solutions, we do not want to even consider the large lambda values which result in zero solutions.
# It might lead to the shorter length of lambda sequence.
ind <- which(lamseq1 >= max(abs(d))); if(iter == 1 & length(ind) == 0){ ind <- 1 }  # At the first iteration, due to some computation roundings, max(lamseq1) >= max(abs(d)) does not hold, but it should ignore the largest lambda value.
res1 <- lassobic(n = n, R1 = R1, d = d, w1init = w1init, lamseq = lamseq1[-ind], BICtype = BICtype, lassoverbose = lassoverbose)
} else {
res1 <- lassobic(n = n, R1 = R1, d = d, w1init = w1init, lamseq = lamseq1, BICtype = BICtype, lassoverbose = lassoverbose)
}
w1 = res1$finalcoef wmat1 <- cbind(wmat1, w1) lam1.iter[iter] <- res1$lamseq[res1$bicInd] # if w1 is estimated as a vector of only zeros, if (sum(abs(w1))==0){ return(list(w1 = rep(0, p1), w2 = rep(0, p2), lam1.iter = lam1.iter, lam2.iter = lam2.iter, obj = obj)) } w1init = w1 ### for w2 d = t(R12)%*%w1init ind = NULL # do not want to use previous iteration results. if((max(lamseq2) >= max(abs(d)) | iter == 1) & length(lamseq2) > 1){ # since we're not interested in zero solutions, we do not want to even consider the large lambda values which result in zero solutions. # It might lead to the shorter length of lambda sequence. ind <- which(lamseq2 >= max(abs(d))); if(iter == 1 & length(ind) == 0){ ind <- 1 } # At the first iteration, due to some computation roundings, max(lamseq1) >= max(abs(d)) does not hold, but it should ignore the largest lambda value. res2 <- lassobic(n = n, R1 = R2, d = d, w1init = w2init, lamseq = lamseq2[-ind], BICtype = BICtype, lassoverbose = lassoverbose) } else { res2 <- lassobic(n = n, R1 = R2, d = d, w1init = w2init, lamseq = lamseq2, BICtype = BICtype, lassoverbose = lassoverbose) } w2 = res2$finalcoef
wmat2 <- cbind(wmat2, w2)
lam2.iter[iter] <- res2$lamseq[res2$bicInd]

# if w2 is estimated as a vector of only zeros,
if (sum(abs(w2))==0){
return(list(w1 = rep(0, p1), w2 = rep(0, p2), lam1.iter = lam1.iter, lam2.iter = lam2.iter, obj = obj))
}
w2init = w2

# It should be normalized when returned from lassobic but wanted to make sure the solutions are normalized.
w1init <- normalizedW(w1init, R1)
w2init <- normalizedW(w2init, R2)

# If one scalar value is used on input for lambda sequence, then I track the whole objective function, which should be strictly increasing. On the other hand, when a vector is used on input for lambda sequence, then I track only the objective function without penalty part. Since we alternatively choose and update the tuning parameter, the objective function wouldn't be strictly increasing with changing tuning parameter values.
if(length(lamseq1) == 1 & length(lamseq2) == 1){
obj[iter] <- as.numeric(crossprod(w1, R12 %*% w2)) - lamseq1*sum(abs(w1)) - lamseq2*sum(abs(w2))
} else {
obj[iter] <- as.numeric(crossprod(w1, R12 %*% w2))
}

# Since there is no previous objective value at the first iteration,
if(iter > 1){
diffobj <- abs( (obj[iter] - obj[iter-1])/obj[iter-1] )
}

# selected lambda values and objective value at each iteration will be printed
if (trace){
cat("iteration = ", iter, " and selected lambda = ", lam1.iter[iter], "&", lam2.iter[iter], "and objective function = ", obj[iter], "\n")
}
} # This is the end of the while-loop
if (iter >= maxiter){
warning("Failed to converge. (findw12 part)\n objective function = ", obj[iter], " and difference of objective function = ", diffobj, " where tol = ", tol, " with BICtype = ", BICtype, "\n")
}
return(list(w1 = w1, w2 = w2, w1trace = wmat1, w2trace = wmat2, lam1.iter = lam1.iter, lam2.iter = lam2.iter, obj = obj))
}

#' @title Sparse CCA for data of mixed types with BIC criterion
#'
#' @description Applies sparse canonical correlation analysis (CCA) for high-dimensional data of mixed types (continuous/biary/truncated continuous). Derived rank-based estimator instead of sample correlation matrix is implemented. There are two types of BIC criteria for variable selection. We found that BIC1 works best for variable selection, whereas BIC2 works best for prediction.
#'
#' @param X1 A numeric data matrix (n by p1).
#' @param X2 A numeric data matrix (n by p2).
#' @param type1 A type of data \code{X1} among "continuous", "binary", "trunc".
#' @param type2 A type of data \code{X2} among "continuous", "binary", "trunc".
#' @param lamseq1 A tuning parameter sequence for \code{X1}. The length should be the same as \code{lamseq2}.
#' @param lamseq2 A tuning parameter sequence for \code{X2}. The length should be the same as \code{lamseq1}.
#' @param nlamseq The number of tuning parameter sequence lambda - default is 20.
#' @param lam.eps A ratio of the smallest value for lambda to the maximum value of lambda.
#' @param w1init An initial vector of length p1 for canonical direction \eqn{w1}.
#' @param w2init An initial vector of length p2 for canonical direction \eqn{w2}.
#' @param BICtype Either 1 or 2: For more details for two options, see the reference.
#' @param KendallR An estimated Kendall \eqn{\tau} matrix. The default is NULL, which means that it will be automatically estimated by Kendall's \eqn{\tau} estimator unless the user supplies.
#' @param maxiter The maximum number of iterations allowed.
#' @param tol The desired accuracy (convergence tolerance).
#' @param trace If \code{trace = TRUE}, progress per each iteration will be printed. The default value is \code{FALSE}.
#' @param lassoverbose If \code{lassoverbose = TRUE}, all warnings from lassobic optimization regarding convergence will be printed. The default value is \code{lassoverbose = FALSE}.
#'
#' @references
#' Yoon G., Carroll R.J. and Gaynanova I. (2020) "Sparse semiparametric canonical correlation analysis for data of mixed types" <doi:10.1093/biomet/asaa007>.
#'
#' @return \code{mixedCCA} returns a data.frame containing
#' \itemize{
#'       \item{KendallR: }{estimated Kendall's \eqn{\tau} matrix estimator.}
#'       \item{lambda_seq: }{the values of \code{lamseq} used for sparse CCA.}
#'       \item{w1: }{estimated canonical direction \eqn{w1}.}
#'       \item{w2: }{estimated canonical direction \eqn{w2}.}
#'       \item{cancor: }{estimated canonical correlation.}
#'       \item{fitresult: }{more details regarding the progress at each iteration.}
#' }
#'
#' @example man/examples/mixedCCA_ex.R
#' @useDynLib mixedCCA, .registration = TRUE
#' @import stats
#' @importFrom Rcpp evalCpp
#' @export
mixedCCA <- function(X1, X2, type1, type2,
lamseq1 = NULL, lamseq2 = NULL, nlamseq = 20, lam.eps = 1e-02,
w1init = NULL, w2init = NULL, BICtype,
KendallR = NULL,
maxiter = 100, tol = 1e-2, trace = FALSE, lassoverbose = FALSE){
n <- nrow(X1)
p1 <- ncol(X1); p2 <- ncol(X2);
p <- p1 + p2

### Compute Kendall tau if there is no input.
if(is.null(KendallR)){
R <- estimateR_mixed(X1, X2, type1 = type1, type2 = type2)$R } else { R <- KendallR; rm(KendallR) } R1 <- as.matrix(R[1:p1, 1:p1]) R2 <- as.matrix(R[(p1+1):p, (p1+1):p]) R12 <- as.matrix(R[1:p1, (p1+1):p]) ### Default initial starting point if (is.null(w1init) | is.null(w2init)){ RCCA <- myrcc(R1 = R1, R2 = R2, R12 = R12, lambda1 = 0.25, lambda2 = 0.25) if (is.null(w1init)){ w1init <- as.matrix(RCCA$w1, ncol=1)
}
if (is.null(w2init)){
w2init <- as.matrix(RCCA$w2, ncol=1) } } # standardize initial starting points - for both lambda seq generation (lambdaseq_generate) and cca algorithm (find_w12bic) w1init <- normalizedW(w1init, R1) w2init <- normalizedW(w2init, R2) ### If there is no input, create default lambda sequences based on standardized initial starting point if (is.null(lamseq1) | is.null(lamseq2)){ lambda_seq <- lambdaseq_generate(nlamseq = nlamseq, lam.eps = lam.eps, Sigma1 = R1, Sigma2 = R2, Sigma12 = R12, w1init = w1init, w2init = w2init) lamseq1 <- lambda_seq[] lamseq2 <- lambda_seq[] } # lassoverbose = TRUE will be converted to 1. lassoverbose = FALSE will be converted to 0 for "lassobic" cpp function lassoverbose <- as.numeric(lassoverbose) ### Calculate canonical coefficients using BIC. fitresult <- find_w12bic(n = n, R1 = R1, R2 = R2, R12 = R12, lamseq1 = lamseq1, lamseq2 = lamseq2, w1init = w1init, w2init = w2init, BICtype = BICtype, maxiter = maxiter, tol = tol, trace = trace, lassoverbose = lassoverbose) if(length(fitresult$obj) >= maxiter){
message("Tried finer lambda sequences.\n") # Tried twice length of lambda sequence to the same function. The whold range should be the same.
lambda_seq <- lambdaseq_generate(nlamseq = nlamseq*2, lam.eps = lam.eps,
Sigma1 = R1, Sigma2 = R2, Sigma12 = R12, w1init = w1init, w2init = w2init)
lamseq1 <- lambda_seq[]
lamseq2 <- lambda_seq[]
fitresult <- find_w12bic(n = n, R1 = R1, R2 = R2, R12 = R12,
lamseq1 = lamseq1, lamseq2 = lamseq2,
w1init = fitresult$w1, w2init = fitresult$w2, BICtype = BICtype, maxiter = maxiter, tol = tol,
trace = trace, lassoverbose = lassoverbose)
if(length(fitresult$obj)<=maxiter){ # If this additional step is converged, the following information will be printed. len <- length(fitresult$obj) # the length of traced object to extract the last element.
diffobj <- abs((fitresult$obj[len] - fitresult$obj[len-1])/fitresult$obj[len-1]) message("Converged. The final difference of objective function = ", diffobj, " where tol = ", tol, " with BICtype = ", BICtype, "\n") } } w1 <- fitresult$w1
w2 <- fitresult$w2 cancor <- as.numeric(crossprod(w1, R12 %*% w2)) return(list(KendallR = R, lambda_seq = list(lamseq1, lamseq2), w1 = w1, w2 = w2, cancor = cancor, fitresult = fitresult)) } # modified to only deal with positive eigenvalues larger than the tolerance. # inputs are correlation/covariance matrices. # only returning first pair of canonical covaraites. #' @title Internal standard CCA function. #' #' @description This function is modified from original CCA function for two reasons: to deal with only positive eigenvalues larger than the tolerance when calculating the inverse of the matrices and to compuate Singular Value Decomposition using \code{\link[irlba]{irlba}} algorithm. Inputs should be correlation or covariance matrices of each data set and between datasets. This function returns only the first pair of canonical covariates. #' #' @param S1 correlation/covariance matrix of dataset \code{X1}. #' @param S2 correlation/covariance matrix of dataset \code{X2}. #' @param S12 correlation/covariance matrix between dataset \code{X1} and dataset \code{X2}. #' @param tol tolerance for eigenvalues. \code{standardCCA} function only deals with positive eigenvalues larger than the tolerance. #' #' @return \code{standardCCA} returns a data.frame containing #' \itemize{ #' \item{cancor: }{estimated canonical correlation.} #' \item{w1: }{estimated canonical direction \eqn{w1}.} #' \item{w2: }{estimated canonical direction \eqn{w2}.} #' } #' #' @importFrom irlba irlba #' @export #' standardCCA <- function(S1, S2, S12, tol = 1e-4){ S1 <- as.matrix(S1) S2 <- as.matrix(S2) S12 <- matrix(S12, nrow = dim(S1), ncol = dim(S2)) if(!isSymmetric(S1)|!isSymmetric(S2)){ stop("The inuput matrices S1 and S2 should be symmetric.\n") } S1eig <- eigen(S1, symmetric=TRUE) subset <- which(S1eig$values > tol)
S1isqrt <- as.matrix(S1eig$vectors[, subset] %*% diag(1/sqrt(S1eig$values[subset])) %*% t(S1eig$vectors[, subset])) S2eig <- eigen(S2, symmetric=TRUE) subset <- which(S2eig$values > tol)
S2isqrt <- as.matrix(S2eig$vectors[, subset] %*% diag(1/sqrt(S2eig$values[subset])) %*% t(S2eig$vectors[, subset])) outsvd <- irlba::irlba(S1isqrt %*% S12 %*% S2isqrt, nv = 1, tol = 1e-9) # svd2(S1isqrt %*% S12 %*% S2isqrt, nu = 1, nv = 1) # We are considering only one pair of canonical covariates. cancor <- max(outsvd$d)

w1 <- S1isqrt %*% outsvd$u w2 <- S2isqrt %*% outsvd$v

return(list(cancor = cancor, w1 = w1, w2 = w2))
}

#' @title Internal RidgeCCA function
#' @description This function is modified from CCA package rcc function. This function is used for simulation. Inputs should be correlation or covariance matrices of each data set and between datasets.
#'
#' @param R1 correlation/covariance/rank-based correlation matrix of dataset \code{X1}.
#' @param R2 correlation/covariance/rank-based correlation matrix of dataset \code{X2}.
#' @param R12 correlation/covariance/rank-based correlation matrix between dataset \code{X1} and dataset \code{X2}.
#' @param lambda1 tuning parameter (a scalar value) for dataset \code{X1}.
#' @param lambda2 tuning parameter (a scalar value) for dataset \code{X2}.
#' @param tol tolerance for eigenvalues. Refer to \code{standardCCA} function.
#'
#' @return \code{myrcc} returns a data.frame containing
#' \itemize{
#'       \item{cancor: }{estimated canonical correlation.}
#'       \item{w1: }{estimated canonical direction \eqn{w1}.}
#'       \item{w2: }{estimated canonical direction \eqn{w2}.}
#' }
#' @export
#'
myrcc <- function(R1, R2, R12, lambda1, lambda2, tol = 1e-4){

C1 <- R1 + diag(lambda1, ncol(R1))
C2 <- R2 + diag(lambda2, ncol(R2))
C12 <- R12
res <- standardCCA(S1 = C1, S2 = C2, S12 = C12, tol = tol)

return(list(cancor = res$cancor, w1 = res$w1,
w2 = res\$w2))
}


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mixedCCA documentation built on March 21, 2021, 1:07 a.m.