Plots time series, qq-plots (against the standard normal distribution), and sample ACF functions of the pseudo-residuals
If some turning angles in the data are equal to pi, the corresponding pseudo-residuals will not be included. Indeed, given that the turning angles are defined on (-pi,pi], an angle of pi results in a pseudo-residual of +Inf (check Section 6.2 of reference for more information on the computation of pseudo-residuals).
If some steps are of length zero (i.e. if there is zero-inflation), the corresponding pseudo- residuals are shown as segments, because pseudo-residuals for discrete data are defined as segments (see Zucchini and MacDonald, 2009, Section 6.2).
Zucchini, W. and MacDonald, I.L. 2009. Hidden Markov Models for Time Series: An Introduction Using R. Chapman & Hall (London).
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