multiway-package: Component Models for Multi-Way Data

Description Details Author(s) References See Also Examples


Fits multi-way component models via alternating least squares algorithms with optional constraints. Fit models include Individual Differences Scaling, Multiway Covariates Regression, Parallel Factor Analysis (1 and 2), Simultaneous Component Analysis, and Tucker Factor Analysis.


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indscal fits the Individual Differences Scaling model. mcr fits the Multiway Covariates Regression model. parafac fits the 3-way and 4-way Parallel Factor Analysis-1 model. parafac2 fits the 3-way and 4-way Parallel Factor Analysis-2 model. sca fits the four different Simultaneous Component Analysis models. tucker fits the 3-way and 4-way Tucker Factor Analysis model.


Nathaniel E. Helwig <[email protected]>

Maintainer: Nathaniel E. Helwig <[email protected]>


Bro, R., & De Jong, S. (1997). A fast non-negativity-constrained least squares algorithm. Journal of Chemometrics, 11, 393-401.

Bro, R., & Kiers, H.A.L. (2003). A new efficient method for determining the number of components in PARAFAC models. Journal of Chemometrics, 17, 274-286.

Carroll, J. D., & Chang, J-J. (1970). Analysis of individual differences in multidimensional scaling via an n-way generalization of "Eckart-Young" decomposition. Psychometrika, 35, 283-319.

Harshman, R. A. (1970). Foundations of the PARAFAC procedure: Models and conditions for an "explanatory" multimodal factor analysis. UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics, 16, 1-84.

Harshman, R. A. (1972). PARAFAC2: Mathematical and technical notes. UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics, 22, 30-44.

Harshman, R. A., & Lundy, M. E. (1994). PARAFAC: Parallel factor analysis. Computational Statistics and Data Analysis, 18, 39-72.

Haughwout, S. P., LaVallee, R. A., & Castle, I-J. P. (2015). Surveillance Report #102: Apparent Per Capita Alcohol Consumption: National, State, and Regional Trends, 1977-2013. Bethesda, MD: NIAAA, Alcohol Epidemiologic Data System.

Helwig, N. E. (2013). The special sign indeterminacy of the direct-fitting Parafac2 model: Some implications, cautions, and recommendations, for Simultaneous Component Analysis. Psychometrika, 78, 725-739.

Helwig, N. E. (2017). Estimating latent trends in multivariate longitudinal data via Parafac2 with functional and structural constraints. Biometrical Journal, 59(4), 783-803.

Helwig, N. E. (in prep). Constrained parallel factor analysis via the R package multiway.

Kiers, H. A. L., ten Berge, J. M. F., & Bro, R. (1999). PARAFAC2-part I: A direct-fitting algorithm for the PARAFAC2 model. Journal of Chemometrics, 13, 275-294.

Kroonenberg, P. M., & de Leeuw, J. (1980). Principal component analysis of three-mode data by means of alternating least squares algorithms. Psychometrika, 45, 69-97.

Moore, E. H. (1920). On the reciprocal of the general algebraic matrix. Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society 26, 394-395.

Nephew, T. M., Yi, H., Williams, G. D., Stinson, F. S., & Dufour, M.C., (2004). U.S. Alcohol Epidemiologic Data Reference Manual, Vol. 1, 4th ed. U.S. Apparent Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages Based on State Sales, Taxation, or Receipt Data. Bethesda, MD: NIAAA, Alcohol Epidemiologic Data System. NIH Publication No. 04-5563.

Penrose, R. (1950). A generalized inverse for matrices. Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 51, 406-413.

Ramsay, J. O. (1988). Monotone regression splines in action. Statistical Science, 3, 425-441.

Smilde, A. K., & Kiers, H. A. L. (1999). Multiway covariates regression models. Journal of Chemometrics, 13, 31-48.

Timmerman, M. E., & Kiers, H. A. L. (2003). Four simultaneous component models for the analysis of multivariate time series from more than one subject to model intraindividual and interindividual differences. Psychometrika, 68, 105-121.

Tucker, L. R. (1966). Some mathematical notes on three-mode factor analysis. Psychometrika, 31, 279-311.

See Also



# See examples for indscal, mcr, parafac, parafac2, sca, and tucker

multiway documentation built on June 11, 2018, 1:09 a.m.