rdiffnet: Random diffnet network

Description Usage Arguments Details Value Author(s) See Also Examples

View source: R/rdiffnet.r

Description

Simulates a diffusion network by creating a random dynamic network and adoption threshold levels.

Usage

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rdiffnet_multiple(R, statistic, ..., ncpus = 1L, cl = NULL)

rdiffnet(n, t, seed.nodes = "random", seed.p.adopt = 0.05,
  seed.graph = "scale-free", rgraph.args = list(), rewire = TRUE,
  rewire.args = list(), threshold.dist = runif(n), exposure.args = list(),
  name = "A diffusion network", behavior = "Random contagion",
  stop.no.diff = TRUE)

Arguments

R

Integer scalar. Number of simulations to be done.

statistic

A Function to be applied to each simulated diffusion network.

...

Further arguments to be passed to rdiffnet.

ncpus

Integer scalar. Number of processors to be used (see details).

cl

An object of class c("SOCKcluster", "cluster") (see details).

n

Integer scalar. Number of vertices.

t

Integer scalar. Time length.

seed.nodes

Either a character scalar or a vector. Type of seed nodes (see details).

seed.p.adopt

Numeric scalar. Proportion of early adopters.

seed.graph

Baseline graph used for the simulation (see details).

rgraph.args

List. Arguments to be passed to rgraph.

rewire

Logical scalar. When TRUE, network slices are generated by rewiring (see rewire_graph).

rewire.args

List. Arguments to be passed to rewire_graph.

threshold.dist

Either a function to be applied via sapply, a numeric scalar, or a vector/matrix with n elements. Sets the adoption threshold for each node.

exposure.args

List. Arguments to be passed to exposure.

name

Character scalar. Passed to as_diffnet.

behavior

Character scalar. Passed to as_diffnet.

stop.no.diff

Logical scalar. When TRUE, the function will return with error if there was no diffusion. Otherwise it throws a warning.

Details

Instead of randomizing whether an individual adopts the innovation or not, this toy model randomizes threshold levels, seed adopters and network structure, so an individual adopts the innovation in time T iff his exposure is above or equal to his threshold. The simulation is done in the following steps:

  1. Using seed.graph, a baseline graph is created.

  2. Given the baseline graph, the set of initial adopters is defined using seed.nodes.

  3. Afterwards, if rewire=TRUE t-1 slices of the network are created by iteratively rewiring the baseline graph.

  4. The threshold.dist function is applied to each node in the graph.

  5. Simulation starts at t=2 assigning adopters in each time period accordingly to each vertex's threshold and exposure.

When seed.nodes is a character scalar it can be "marginal", "central" or "random", So each of these values sets the initial adopters using the vertices with lowest degree, with highest degree or completely randomly. The number of early adoptes is set as seed.p.adopt * n. Please note that when marginal nodes are set as seed it may be the case that no diffusion process is attained as the chosen set of first adopters can be isolated. Any other case will be considered as an index (via [<- methods), hence the user can manually set the set of initial adopters, for example if the user sets seed.nodes=c(1, 4, 7) then nodes 1, 4 and 7 will be selected as initial adopters.

The argument seed.graph can be either a function that generates a graph (Any class of accepted graph format (see netdiffuseR-graphs)), a graph itself or a character scalar in which the user sets the algorithm used to generate the first network (network in t=1), this can be either "scale-free" (Barabasi-Albert model using the rgraph_ba function, the default), "bernoulli" (Erdos-Renyi model using the rgraph_er function), or "small-world" (Watts-Strogatz model using the rgraph_ws function). The list rgraph.args passes arguments to the chosen algorithm.

When rewire=TRUE, the networks that follow t=1 will be generated using the rewire_graph function as G(t) = R(G(t-1)), where R is the rewiring algorithm.

If a function, the argument threshold.dist sets the threshold for each vertex in the graph. It is applied using sapply as follows

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sapply(1:n, threshold.dist)

By default sets the threshold to be random for each node in the graph.

If seed.graph is provided, no random graph is generated and the simulation is applied using that graph instead.

rewire.args has the following default options:

p .1
undirected getOption("diffnet.undirected", FALSE)
self getOption("diffnet.self", FALSE)

exposure.args has the following default options:

outgoing TRUE
valued getOption("diffnet.valued", FALSE)
normalized TRUE

The function rdiffnet_multiple is a wrapper of rdiffnet wich allows simulating multiple diffusion networks with the same parameters and apply the same function to all of them. This function is designed to allow the user to perform larger simulation studies in which the distribution of a particular statistic is observed.

When cl is provided, then simulations are done via parSapply. If ncpus is greater than 1, then the function creates a cluster via makeCluster which is stopped (removed) once the process is complete.

Value

A random diffnet class object.

rdiffnet_multiple returns either a vector or an array depending on what statistic is (see sapply and parSapply).

Author(s)

George G. Vega Yon

See Also

Other simulation functions: permute_graph, rewire_graph, rgraph_ba, rgraph_er, rgraph_ws, ring_lattice

Examples

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# Asimple example -----------------------------------------------------------
set.seed(123)
z <- rdiffnet(100,10)
z
summary(z)

# A more complex example: Adopt if at least one neighbor has adopted --------
y <- rdiffnet(100, 10, threshold.dist=function(x) 1,
    exposure.args=list(valued=FALSE, normalized=FALSE))

# Re thinking the Adoption of Tetracycline ----------------------------------
newMI <- rdiffnet(seed.graph = medInnovationsDiffNet$graph,
 threshold.dist = threshold(medInnovationsDiffNet), rewire=FALSE)


# Simulation study comparing the diffusion with diff sets of seed nodes -----

# Random seed nodes
set.seed(1)
ans0 <- rdiffnet_multiple(R=50, statistic=function(x) sum(!is.na(x$toa)),
    n = 100, t = 4, seed.nodes = "random", stop.no.diff=FALSE)

# Central seed nodes
set.seed(1)
ans1 <- rdiffnet_multiple(R=50, statistic=function(x) sum(!is.na(x$toa)),
    n = 100, t = 4, seed.nodes = "central", stop.no.diff=FALSE)

boxplot(cbind(Random = ans0, Central = ans1), main="Number of adopters")

netdiffuseR documentation built on Nov. 17, 2017, 3:59 a.m.