R/optional.R

Defines functions option some opt_unwrap `==.optional` make_opt print.optional opt_call_match_ match_with fallthrough

Documented in fallthrough make_opt match_with option opt_unwrap some

#           Copyright(c) Antoine Champion 2017-2018.
#  Distributed under the Boost Software License, Version 1.0 .
#     (See accompanying file LICENSE_1_0.txt or copy at
#           http://www.boost.org/LICENSE_1_0.txt)

#' @importFrom methods formalArgs
#' @importFrom magrittr %>%
NULL

#' @title       option
#' @usage       option(arg)
#' @description
#' Make a variable optional. 
#'
#' \code{option} is an object wrapper which indicates
#' whether the object is valid or not.
#' @details
#' Note that \code{option(option(i)) == option(i)}
#' and \code{option(none) == FALSE}
#' 
#' Operators and print will have the same behavior with 
#' an optional than with its base type.
#' 
#' @param arg   The variable to make optional
#' @return      \code{arg} as \code{optional}
#' @seealso     none, opt_unwrap(), make_opt()
#' @examples
#' a <- option(5)
#' class(a)
#' ## [1] "optional"
#'
#' a == 5
#' ## [1] TRUE
#'
#' a
#' ## [1] 5
#' @export
option <- function(arg) {
  if (missing(arg)) return(none)
  
  if (is.null(arg)) return(none)
  
  if (class(arg) == "optional") {
    if (attr(arg, "option_none")) return(FALSE)
    else return(arg)
  }

  attr(arg, "option_class") <- attr(arg, "class")
  attr(arg, "option_none") <- FALSE
  attr(arg, "class") <- "optional"

  return(arg)
}

#' @title       some
#' @usage       some(arg)
#' @description
#' Check if a optional object equals none
#'
#' @param arg   The variable to check existence
#' @return      TRUE if \code{arg} is an optional variable 
#' and if it is not none, else returns FALSE
#' @seealso     option(), none
#' a <- option(1)
#' some(a)
#' ## [1] TRUE
#' b <- none
#' some(b)
#' ## [1] FALSE
#' @export
some <- function(arg) {
  if (class(arg) == "optional") {
    return(!attr(arg, "option_none"))
  }
  return(FALSE)
}

#' @title       None
#' @description
#' Indicates an invalid variable.
#' Might be returned by an optional function 
#' (see \code{?make_opt()})
#'
#' @seealso     option(), opt_unwrap()
#' @examples
#' a <- none
#' a
#' ## [1] None
#' @export
none <- option(TRUE)
attr(none, "option_none") <- TRUE

#' @title       Option Unwrap
#' @usage 		opt_unwrap(opt)
#' 
#' @description
#' Cast an optional object to its base type.
#' @details
#' Since an optional can be used the same way as its
#' base type, there is no known scenario where this
#' function might be useful.
#' 
#' @param opt   The optional variable to cast back
#' @return      The object wrapped in \code{opt}. 
#'              \code{NULL} if \code{opt} is \code{none}.
#' @seealso     make_opt(), match_with()
#' @examples
#' a <- option(5)
#' class(a)
#' ## [1] "optional"
#' a <- opt_unwrap(a)
#'
#' class(a)
#' ## [1] "numeric"
#' @export
opt_unwrap <- function(opt) {
  if (class(opt) != "optional")
    return(opt)

  if (attr(opt, "option_none"))
    return(NULL)

  attr(opt, "class") <- attr(opt, "option_class")
  attr(opt, "option_class") <- NULL
  attr(opt, "option_none") <- NULL

  return(opt)
}

# Equal operator overload
#' @export
`==.optional` <- function(e1, e2) {
  if (class(e1) == "optional" && attr(e1, "option_none"))
    return(class(e2) == "optional" && attr(e2, "option_none"))

  if (class(e2) == "optional" && attr(e2, "option_none"))
    return(class(e1) == "optional" && attr(e1, "option_none"))

  return(opt_unwrap(e1) == opt_unwrap(e2))
}

#' @title                       Make optional
#' @description
#' Make an existing function accepting and returning optionals.
#' @usage make_opt(fun, stop_if_none = FALSE, fun_if_none = NULL)
#' @details
#' \enumerate{
#'   \item Every optional argument passed to \code{f_opt()} will be  
#'         converted to its original type before being sent 
#'         to \code{f()}. If one or more of them is \code{none},  
#'         several behaviors are available (see argument list).
#'   \item If \code{f()} returns null, or if an error is thrown 
#'         during its execution, then \code{f_opt()} returns 
#'         \code{none}. Else it will return  \code{option(f(...))}.
#' }
#' @param fun                   The function to make optional, might be any 
#'                              function.
#' @param stop_if_none          If true, \code{f_opt()} will stop and return 
#'                              \code{none} if one of the arguments provided 
#'                              is \code{none}. Else, \code{none} will be 
#'                              sent as \code{NULL} to the function.
#'                              *Default: FALSE*
#' @param fun_if_none           If not null, will be executed if an argument
#'                              is \code{none}.
#'                              *Default: NULL*
#' @return                      The optional function. To be used with the
#'                              same parameters than \code{fun()}.
#' @seealso                     option(), none(), match_with()
#' @examples
#' c_opt <- make_opt(c)
#' c_opt(option(2), none, option(5))
#' ## [1] 2 5
#' c_opt()
#' ## [1] "None"
#' @export
make_opt <- function(fun, stop_if_none = FALSE, fun_if_none = NULL) {
  return(function(...) {
    args <- list(...)
    to_null <- c()

    if (length(args) != 0) {
      for (i in 1:length(args)) {

        if (class(args[[i]]) != "optional") next

        if (args[[i]] == none) {
          if (!is.null(fun_if_none))
            fun_if_none()

          if (stop_if_none) return(none)

          to_null <- c(to_null, i)
        }

        else {
          attr(args[[i]], "class") <- attr(args[[i]], "option_class")
          attr(args[[i]], "option_class") <- NULL
          attr(args[[i]], "option_none") <- NULL
        }
      }
    }

    args[to_null] <- NULL

    tryCatch(ret <- do.call(fun, args),
             error = function(e) {
               ret <- NULL
             }
    )
    if (is.null(ret))
      return(none)
    else
      return(option(ret))
    })
}

# Print generic overload for optionals
#' @export
print.optional <- function(x, ...) {
  if (attr(x, "option_none")) {
    print("None", ...)
  } else {
    attr(x, "class") <- attr(x, "option_class")
    attr(x, "option_class") <- NULL
    attr(x, "option_none") <- NULL
    print(x, ...)
  }
}

# If fun has zero arguments, calls fun()
# else calls fun(x)
opt_call_match_ <- function(fun, x) {
  if (length(formalArgs(fun)) != 0) {
    return(fun(x))
  }
  else {
    return(fun())
  }
}

#' @title       Match With
#' @usage		match_with(x, ...)
#' 
#' @description
#' Function to check a variable using pattern matching.
#' @details
#' \code{match_with(variable,
#' pattern, result-function,
#' ...}
#' If \code{variable} matches a \code{pattern}, \code{result-function}
#' is called. For comparing optional types, it is a better habit to 
#' use \code{match_with} than a conditional statement.
#'
#' \enumerate{
#'   \item Each \code{pattern} can be either:
#'     \itemize{
#'       \item an object or a primitive type (direct comparison with \code{variable}),
#'       \item a list (match if \code{variable} is in the list),
#'       \item a \code{magrittr} functional sequence that matches if it returns \code{variable} . The dot \code{.} denotes the variable to be matched.
#'     }
#'   \item If \code{result-function} takes no arguments, it will be called as is. Else, the only argument that will be sent is \code{variable}. 
#'   You can also use the fallthrough function \code{fallthrough()} to permit the matching to continue even if the current pattern is matched.
#' }
#'
#' @param x     The variable to pattern-match
#' @param ...   Pairs of one pattern (value or list or magrittr 
#'              sequence) and one result function
#' @seealso     option(), none
#' @examples
#' library(magrittr)
#'
#' a <- 5
#' match_with(a,
#'   . %>% option(.),     paste,
#'   none, function()   "Error!"
#' )
#' ## [1] 5
#'
#' match_with(a,
#'   1,                   function()  "Matched exact value",
#'   list(2, 3, 4),       function(x) paste("Matched in list:", x),
#'   . %>% if (. > 4) .,  function(x) paste("Matched in condition:", x)
#' )
#' ## [1] "Matched in condition: 5"
#' @export
match_with <- function(x, ...) {
  args <- list(...)
  n <- length(args)
  if (n < 3 || n %% 2 != 0) {
    write("match_with: Wrong number of parameters", stderr())
    return(none)
  }
  
  c_opt <- make_opt(c)
  res_ret <- none
  for (i in seq(1, n, 2)) {
    pattern <- args[[i]]
    res_function <- args[[i + 1]]
    
    if ("fseq" %in% class(pattern)) { # If pattern is a magrittr sequence
      ret <- pattern(x)
      if (!is.null(ret) && x == ret) {
        res_ret <- c_opt(res_ret, opt_call_match_(res_function, x))
        if (is.null(attr(res_function, "option_fallthrough"))) {
          # If there is no fallthrough then break
          break
        }
      }
    }
    else if ("list" %in% class(pattern)) { # If pattern is a list
      if (x %in% pattern) {
        res_ret <- c_opt(res_ret, opt_call_match_(res_function, x))
        if (is.null(attr(res_function, "option_fallthrough"))) {
          break
        }
      }
    }
    else if (x == pattern) { # If pattern is a single value
      res_ret <- c_opt(res_ret, opt_call_match_(res_function, x))
      if (is.null(attr(res_function, "option_fallthrough"))) {
        break
      }
    }
  }
  return(res_ret)
}

#' @title Fallthrough function
#' @description Permit a pattern matching to continue even if its argument is executed.
#' @usage fallthrough(fun)
#' @param fun A result function used in \code{make_opt()}
#' @details \code{fallthrough(fun)} can be applied to a result function \code{fun} inside a 
#' \code{match_with()} pattern.
#' If there is a match, this will make the pattern matching
#' continue through the other conditions at the end of the result function \code{fun}.
#' \code{match_with(variable,
#' pattern, fallthrough(result-function),
#' ...}
#' @examples
#' library(magrittr)
#'
#' a <- 4
#' match_with(a,
#'   . %>% if (. %% 2 == 0)., 
#'   fallthrough( function() "This number is even" ),
#'   . %>% if ( sqrt(.) == round(sqrt(.)) ).,  
#'   function() "This number is a perfect square"
#' )
#' ## [1] "This number is even"   "This number is a perfect square"
#' @export
fallthrough <- function(fun) {
  if (class(fun) == "function")
    attr(fun, "option_fallthrough") <- TRUE

  return(fun)
}

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optional documentation built on May 1, 2019, 9:14 p.m.