bitwise.dist: Calculate dissimilarity or Euclidean distance for genlight...

Description Usage Arguments Details Value Note Author(s) See Also Examples

View source: R/bitwise.r

Description

This function calculates both dissimilarity and Euclidean distances for genlight or snpclone objects.

Usage

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bitwise.dist(x, percent = TRUE, mat = FALSE, missing_match = TRUE,
  scale_missing = FALSE, euclidean = FALSE, differences_only = FALSE,
  threads = 0L)

Arguments

x

a genlight or snpclone object.

percent

logical. Should the distance be represented from 0 to 1? Default set to TRUE. FALSE will return the distance represented as integers from 1 to n where n is the number of loci. This option has no effect if euclidean = TRUE

mat

logical. Return a matrix object. Default set to FALSE, returning a dist object. TRUE returns a matrix object.

missing_match

logical. Determines whether two samples differing by missing data in a location should be counted as matching at that location. Default set to TRUE, which forces missing data to match with anything. FALSE forces missing data to not match with any other information, including other missing data.

scale_missing

A logical. If TRUE, comparisons with missing data is scaled up proportionally to the number of columns used by multiplying the value by m / (m - x) where m is the number of loci and x is the number of missing sites. This option matches the behavior of base R's dist() function. Defaults to FALSE.

euclidean

logical. if TRUE, the Euclidean distance will be calculated.

differences_only

logical. When differences_only = TRUE, the output will reflect the number of different loci. The default setting, differences_only = FALSE, reflects the number of different alleles. Note: this has no effect on haploid organisms since 1 locus = 1 allele. This option is NOT recommended.

threads

The maximum number of parallel threads to be used within this function. A value of 0 (default) will attempt to use as many threads as there are available cores/CPUs. In most cases this is ideal. A value of 1 will force the function to run serially, which may increase stability on some systems. Other values may be specified, but should be used with caution.

Details

The default distance calculated here is quite simple and goes by many names depending on its application. The most familiar name might be the Hamming distance, or the number of differences between two strings.

As of poppr version 2.8.0, this function now also calculates Euclidean distance and is considerably faster and more memory-efficient than the standard dist() function.

Value

A dist object containing pairwise distances between samples.

Note

This function is optimized for genlight and snpclone objects. This does not mean that it is a catch-all optimization for SNP data. Three assumptions must be met for this function to work:

  1. SNPs are bi-allelic

  2. Samples are haploid or diploid

  3. All samples have the same ploidy

If the user supplies a genind or genclone object, prevosti.dist() will be used for calculation.

Author(s)

Zhian N. Kamvar, Jonah C. Brooks

See Also

diss.dist(), snpclone, genlight, win.ia(), samp.ia()

Examples

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set.seed(999)
x <- glSim(n.ind = 10, n.snp.nonstruc = 5e2, n.snp.struc = 5e2, ploidy = 2)
x
# Assess fraction of different alleles
system.time(xd <- bitwise.dist(x, threads = 1L))
xd

# Calculate Euclidean distance
system.time(xdt <- bitwise.dist(x, euclidean = TRUE, scale_missing = TRUE, threads = 1L))
xdt

## Not run: 

# This function is more efficient in both memory and speed than [dist()] for
# calculating Euclidean distance on genlight objects. For example, we can
# observe a clear speed increase when we attempt a calculation on 100k SNPs
# with 10% missing data:

set.seed(999)
mat <- matrix(sample(c(0:2, NA), 
                     100000 * 50, 
                     replace = TRUE, 
                     prob = c(0.3, 0.3, 0.3, 0.1)),
              nrow = 50)
glite <- new("genlight", mat, ploidy = 2)

# Default Euclidean distance 
system.time(dist(glite))

# Bitwise dist
system.time(bitwise.dist(glite, euclidean = TRUE, scale_missing = TRUE))


## End(Not run)

poppr documentation built on Aug. 22, 2018, 5:03 p.m.