poppr-package: The 'poppr' R package

Description Details Functions in poppr Data import/export Data Structures Data manipulation Genetic distances Bootstrapping Multilocus Genotypes Index of Association Analysis Population Genetic Analysis Visualization Datasets Author(s) References


Poppr provides tools for population genetic analysis that include genotypic diversity measures, genetic distances with bootstrap support, native organization and handling of population hierarchies, and clone correction.

To cite poppr, please use citation("poppr"). When referring to poppr in your manuscript, please use lower case unless it occurs at the beginning of a sentence.


This package relies on the adegenet package. It is built around the genind and genlight object. Genind objects store genetic information in a table of allele frequencies while genlight objects store SNP data efficiently by packing binary allele calls into single bits. Poppr has extended these object into new objects called genclone and snpclone, respectively. These objects are designed for analysis of clonal organisms as they add the @mlg slot for keeping track of multilocus genotypes and multilocus lineages.


Documentation is available for any function by typing ?function_name in the R console. Detailed topic explanations live in the package vignettes:

Vignette command
Data import and manipulation vignette("poppr_manual", "poppr")
Algorithms and Equations vignette("algo", "poppr")
Multilocus Genotype Analysis vignette("mlg", "poppr")

Essential functions for importing and manipulating data are detailed within the Data import and manipulation vignette, details on algorithms used in poppr are within the Algorithms and equations vignette, and details for working with multilocus genotypes are in Multilocus Genotype Analysis.

Examples of analyses are available in a primer written by Niklaus J. Grünwald, Zhian N. Kamvar, and Sydney E. Everhart at http://grunwaldlab.github.io/Population_Genetics_in_R/.

Getting help

If you have a specific question or issue with poppr, feel free to contribute to the google group at https://groups.google.com/d/forum/poppr. If you find a bug and are a github user, you can submit bug reports at https://github.com/grunwaldlab/poppr/issues. Otherwise, leave a message on the groups. Personal emails are highly discouraged as they do not allow others to learn.

Functions in poppr

Below are descriptions and links to functions found in poppr. Be aware that all functions in adegenet are also available. The functions are documented as:

Where ‘data type’ refers to the type of data that can be used:

m a genclone or genind object
s a snpclone or genlight object
x a different data type (e.g. a matrix from mlg.table())

Data import/export

Data Structures

Data structures "genclone" (based off of adegenet's genind) and "snpclone" (based off of adegenet's genlight for large SNP data sets). Both of these data structures are defined by the presence of an extra MLG slot representing multilocus genotype assignments, which can be a numeric vector or a MLG class object.

Data manipulation

Genetic distances


Multilocus Genotypes

Index of Association Analysis

Analysis of multilocus linkage disequilibrium.

Population Genetic Analysis




Zhian N. Kamvar, Jonah C. Brooks, Sydney E. Everhart, Javier F. Tabima, Stacy Krueger-Hadfield, Erik Sotka, Niklaus J. Grünwald

Maintainer: Zhian N. Kamvar


——— Papers announcing poppr ———

Kamvar ZN, Tabima JF, Grünwald NJ. (2014) Poppr: an R package for genetic analysis of populations with clonal, partially clonal, and/or sexual reproduction. PeerJ 2:e281 doi: 10.7717/peerj.281

Kamvar ZN, Brooks JC and Grünwald NJ (2015) Novel R tools for analysis of genome-wide population genetic data with emphasis on clonality. Front. Genet. 6:208. doi: 10.3389/fgene.2015.00208

——— Papers referencing data sets ———

Grünwald, NJ and Hoheisel, G.A. 2006. Hierarchical Analysis of Diversity, Selfing, and Genetic Differentiation in Populations of the Oomycete Aphanomyces euteiches. Phytopathology 96:1134-1141 doi: doi: 10.1094/PHYTO-96-1134

SE Everhart, H Scherm, (2015) Fine-scale genetic structure of Monilinia fructicola during brown rot epidemics within individual peach tree canopies. Phytopathology 105:542-549 doi: doi: 10.1094/PHYTO-03-14-0088-R

Bo Peng and Christopher Amos (2008) Forward-time simulations of nonrandom mating populations using simuPOP. bioinformatics, 24 (11): 1408-1409.

Goss, Erica M., Javier F. Tabima, David EL Cooke, Silvia Restrepo, William E. Fry, Gregory A. Forbes, Valerie J. Fieland, Martha Cardenas, and Niklaus J. Grünwald. (2014) "The Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans originated in central Mexico rather than the Andes." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111:8791-8796. doi: doi: 10.1073/pnas.1401884111

Kamvar, Z. N., Larsen, M. M., Kanaskie, A. M., Hansen, E. M., & Grünwald, N. J. (2015). Spatial and temporal analysis of populations of the sudden oak death pathogen in Oregon forests. Phytopathology 105:982-989. doi: doi: 10.1094/PHYTO-12-14-0350-FI

Goss, E. M., Larsen, M., Chastagner, G. A., Givens, D. R., and Grünwald, N. J. 2009. Population genetic analysis infers migration pathways of Phytophthora ramorum in US nurseries. PLoS Pathog. 5:e1000583. doi: doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000583

poppr documentation built on Sept. 7, 2021, 9:06 a.m.