This is a simple "try to take values on the left, but fall back
to the right if they are not available" operator. It is inspired
by SQL coalesce and the notation is designed to
evoke the idea of testing and the
?? null coalescing operator.
NULL are treated roughly equally: both are
replaced regardless of available replacement value (with some exceptions).
The exceptions are: if the left hand side is a non-zero length vector
we preserve the vector type of the left-hand side and do not assign
any values that vectors can not hold (NULLs and complex structures) and do not
replace with a right argument list.
1 2 3
coalesce(coalesce_left_arg, coalesce_right_arg) coalesce_left_arg %?% coalesce_right_arg
vector or list.
vector or list.
This operator represents a compromise between the desire to replace
length zero structures and NULL/NA values and the desire to preserve
the first argument's structure (vector versus list). The order of
operations has been chosen to be safe, convenient, and useful. Length zero
lists are not treated as NULL (which is consistent with R in general).
Note for non-vector operations on conditions we recommend looking into
isTRUE, which solves some problems even faster
than coalesce style operators.
When length(coalesce_left_arg)<=0 then return coalesce_right_arg if length(coalesce_right_arg)>0, otherwise return coalesce_left_arg. When length(coalesce_left_arg)>0: assume coalesce_left_arg is a list or vector and coalesce_right_arg is a list or vector that is either the same length as coalesce_left_arg or length 1. In this case replace NA/NULL elements of coalesce_left_arg with corresponding elements of coalesce_right_arg (re-cycling coalesce_right_arg when it is length 1).
coalesce_left_arg with NA elements replaced.
%?%: coalesce operator
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
c(NA, NA, NA) %?% 5 # returns c(5, 5, 5) c(1, NA, NA) %?% list(5) # returns c(1, 5, 5) c(1, NA, NA) %?% list(list(5)) # returns c(1, NA, NA) c(1, NA, NA) %?% c(NA, 20, NA) # returns c(1, 20, NA) NULL %?% list() # returns NULL NULL %?% c(1, NA) # returns c(1, NA) list(1, NULL, NULL) %?% c(3, 4, NA) # returns list(1, 4, NA_real_) list(1, NULL, NULL, NA, NA) %?% list(2, NULL, NA, NULL, NA) # returns list(1, NULL, NA, NULL, NA) c(1, NA, NA) %?% list(1, 2, list(3)) # returns c(1, 2, NA) c(1, NA) %?% list(1, NULL) # returns c(1, NA) c() %?% list(1, NA, NULL) # returns list(1, NA, NULL) c() %?% c(1, NA, 2) # returns c(1, NA, 2)
Add the following code to your website.
For more information on customizing the embed code, read Embedding Snippets.