USArrests: Violent Crime Rates by US State

USArrestsR Documentation

Violent Crime Rates by US State


This data set contains statistics, in arrests per 100,000 residents for assault, murder, and rape in each of the 50 US states in 1973. Also given is the percent of the population living in urban areas.




A data frame with 50 observations on 4 variables.

[,1] Murder numeric Murder arrests (per 100,000)
[,2] Assault numeric Assault arrests (per 100,000)
[,3] UrbanPop numeric Percent urban population
[,4] Rape numeric Rape arrests (per 100,000)


USArrests contains the data as in McNeil's monograph. For the UrbanPop percentages, a review of the table (No. 21) in the Statistical Abstracts 1975 reveals a transcription error for Maryland (and that McNeil used the same “round to even” rule that R's round() uses), as found by Daniel S Coven (Arizona).

See the example below on how to correct the error and improve accuracy for the ‘<n>.5’ percentages.


World Almanac and Book of facts 1975. (Crime rates).

Statistical Abstracts of the United States 1975, p.20, (Urban rates), possibly available as


McNeil, D. R. (1977) Interactive Data Analysis. New York: Wiley.

See Also

The state data sets.



pairs(USArrests, panel = panel.smooth, main = "USArrests data")

## Difference between 'USArrests' and its correction
USArrests["Maryland", "UrbanPop"] # 67 -- the transcription error
UA.C <- USArrests
UA.C["Maryland", "UrbanPop"] <- 76.6

## also +/- 0.5 to restore the original  <n>.5  percentages
s5u <- c("Colorado", "Florida", "Mississippi", "Wyoming")
s5d <- c("Nebraska", "Pennsylvania")
UA.C[s5u, "UrbanPop"] <- UA.C[s5u, "UrbanPop"] + 0.5
UA.C[s5d, "UrbanPop"] <- UA.C[s5d, "UrbanPop"] - 0.5

## ==> UA.C  is now a *C*orrected version of  USArrests