SubCellBarCode: Integrated workflow for robust classification and

Installation of the package

SubCellBarCode can be installed through BiocManager package as follows:

``` {r install,eval = FALSE} if (!requireNamespace("BiocManager")) install.packages("BiocManager") BiocManager::install("SubCellBarCode")

# Load the package


Data preparation and classification

Example Data

As example data we here provide the publicly available HCC827 (human lung adenocarcinoma cell line) TMT10plex labelled proteomics dataset (Orre et al. 2019, Molecular Cell). The data.frame consists of 10480 proteins as rows (rownames are gene -centric protein ids) and 5 fractions with duplicates as columns (replicates must be named ".A." and ".B.", repectively).


Marker Proteins

The classification of protein localisation using the SubCellBarCode method is dependent on 3365 marker proteins as defined in Orre et al. The markerProteins data.frame contain protein names (gene symbol), associated subcellular localization (compartment), color code for the compartment and the median normalized fractionation profile (log2) based on five different human cell lines (NCI-H322, HCC827, MCF7, A431 and U251) here called the “5CL marker profile”.


Load and normalize data

Input data.frame is checked with "NA" values and for the correct format. If there is any "NA" value, corresponding row is deleted. Then, data frame is log2 transformmed.

df <- loadData( = hcc827Ctrl)

Additional step: We use gene symbols for the protein identification. Therefore, we require gene symbols for the identifiaction. However, if the input data has other identifier e.g. UNIPROT, IPI, Entrez ID, you can convert it to gene symbol by our defined function.
Please be aware of possible (most likely few) id loss during the conversion to one another.

##Run if you have another identifier than gene symbols.
##Function will convert UNIPROT identifier to gene symbols.
##Deafult id is "UNIPROT", make sure you change it if you use another.

#df <- convert2symbol(df = df, id = "UNIPROT")

For the downstream analysis, we used the randomly selected subset data.

df <- df[sample(nrow(df), 6000),]

Calculate covered marker proteins

The overlap between marker proteins (3365) and input data.frame is calculated and visualized for each compartment by a bar plot.

Note that we recommend at least 20% coverage of marker proteins for each compartment. If certain compartments are underrrepresented we recommend you to perform the cell fractionation again. If all compartments are low in coverage we recommend increasing the analytical depth of the MS-analysis.

c.prots <- calculateCoveredProtein(proteinIDs = rownames(df), 
                        markerproteins = markerProteins[,1]) 

Quality control of the marker proteins

To avoid reduced classification accuracy, marker proteins with noisy quantification and marker proteins that are not representative of their associated compartment (e.g.due to cell type specific localization) are filtered out by a two-step quality control.

  1. Marker proteins with pearson correlations less than 0.8 between A and B duplicates for each cell line were filtered out (Figure A).

  2. Pairwise correlations between 5CL marker profile and input data for each protein (A and B replicate experiments separately) were calculated using both Pearson and Spearman correlation. The lowest value for each method were then used for filtering with cut-offs set to 0.8 and 0.6 respectively, to exclude non-representative marker proteins (Figure B).

r.markers <- markerQualityControl(coveredProteins = c.prots, = df)

Optional step: After removing non-marker proteins, you can re-calculate and visualize the final coverage of the marker proteins.

## uncomment the function when running 
# f.prots <- calculateCoveredProtein(r.markers, markerProteins[,1])

Visualization of marker proteins in t-SNE map

The spatial distribution of the marker proteins is visualized in t-SNE map. This plot will be informative for the quality control of the generated data as it offers evaluation of the spatial distribution and separation of marker proteins.

#Default parameters
#Run the broad-range parameters to optimize well !!!
#Output dimensionality
#dims = 3
#Speed/accuracy trade-off (increase for less accuracy) 
#theta = c(0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5)
#Perplexity parameter
#perplexity = c(5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60) 

Information about the different t-SNE parameters that can be modified by the user is available by typing ?Rtsne in the console.
Although the applications of t-SNE is widespread in the field of machine learning, it can be misleading if it is not well optimized. Therefore, we optimize t-SNE map by grid search, a process that can take some time

set.seed(6) <- tsneVisualization( = df, 
                    markerProteins = r.markers, 
                    dims = 3, 
                    theta = c(0.1), 
                    perplexity = c(60)) 

We recommend 3D vizualisation by setting dims = 3, for optimal evaluation of marker protein cluster separation and data modularity. You can also visualize the marker proteins in 2 dimensional space by setting dims = 2, although reducing the dimensionality results in loss of information and underestimation of data resolution.

tsne.map2 <- tsneVisualization( = df, 
                    markerProteins = r.markers, 
                    dims = 2, 
                    theta = c(0.5), 
                    perplexity = c(60))

Build model and classify proteins

For replicate A and B separately, marker proteins are used for training a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier with a Gaussian radial basis function kernel algorithm. After tuning the parameters, the SVM model predicts (classifies) the subcellular localization for all proteins in the input data with corresponding probabilities for A and B replicate classification.

cls <- svmClassification(markerProteins = r.markers, 
                           = df, 
                                    markerprot.df = markerProteins)
# testing data predictions for replicate A and B
test.A <- cls[[1]]$svm.test.prob.out
test.B <- cls[[2]]$svm.test.prob.out
# all predictions for replicate A and B
all.A <- cls[[1]]$all.prot.pred
all.B <- cls[[2]]$all.prot.pred

Estimate classification thresholds for compartment level

Classification probabilities close to 1 indicate high confidence predictions, whereas probabilities close to 0 indicate low confidence predictions. To increase the overal prediction accuracy and to filter out poor predictions, one criterion and two cut-offs are defined.

  1. The criterion is the consensus of preliminary predictions between biological duplicates. Proteins are kept in the analysis, if there is an agreement between biological duplicates. Subsequently, prediction probabilities from the two duplicates are averaged for each protein.

  2. Cut-off is (precision - based) set when precision reach 0.9 in the test data.

  3. Cut-off is (recall - based) set as the probability of the lowest true positive in the test data.

t.c.df <- computeThresholdCompartment(test.repA = test.A, test.repB = test.B)

Apply threshold to compartment level classifications

The determined thresholds for the compartment levels are applied to all classifications.

c.cls.df <- applyThresholdCompartment(all.repA = all.A, all.repB = all.B,
                                    threshold.df = t.c.df)

Estimate classification thresholds for neighborhood level

Compartment level classification probabilities are summed to neighborhood probabilities and thresholds for neighborhood analysis are estimated as described above for compartment level analysis except precision based cut-off is set to 0.95.

t.n.df <- computeThresholdNeighborhood(test.repA = test.A, test.repB = test.B)

Apply threshold to neighborhood level classifications

The determined thresholds for the neighborhood levels are applied to all classifications.

n.cls.df <- applyThresholdNeighborhood(all.repA = all.A, all.repB = all.B, 
                                    threshold.df = t.n.df)

Merge compartment and neighborhood classification

Individual classifications (compartment and neighborhood) are merged into one data frame.

cls.df <- mergeCls(compartmentCls = c.cls.df, neighborhoodCls = n.cls.df)

Visualization of the protein subcellular localization

SubCellBarCode plot

You can query one protein at a time to plot barcode of the protein of the interest.

PSM (Peptide-spectra-matching) count table is required for the plotting SubCellBarCode. It is in data.frame format;

plotBarcode(sampleClassification = cls.df, protein = "NLRP4",
        s1PSM = hcc827CtrlPSMCount)

Co-localization plot

To evaluate localization and of multiple proteins at the same time, a vector of proteins (identified by gene symbols) can be prepared and used to create a barplot showing the distribution of classifications across compartments and neighborhoods. This analysis could be helpful when evaluating co-localization of proteins, protein complex formation and compartmentalized protein level regulation.

# 26S proteasome complex (26s proteasome regulatory complex)
proteasome26s <- c("PSMA7", "PSMC3","PSMA4", "PSMB4", 
                    "PSMB6", "PSMB5", "PSMC2","PSMC4",
                    "PSMB3", "PSMA6","PSMC5","PSMC6")

plotMultipleProtein(sampleClassification = cls.df, proteinList = proteasome26s)

Differential localization analysis

Regulation of protein localization is a the key process in cellular signalling. The SubCellBarCode method can be used for differential localization analysis given two conditions such as control vs treatment, cancer cell vs normal cell, cell state A vs cell state B, etc. As example, we compared untreated and gefitinib (EGFR inhibitor) treated HCC827 cells (for details, see Orre et al.).

Identify differentially localizing proteins

Neighborhood classifications for condition 1 (untreated) and condition 2 (gefitinib) is first done separately, and classifications for overlapping proteins are then vizualized by a sankey plot.
The HCC827 gefitinib cell lines classification was embedded into the package for example analysis.

sankeyPlot(sampleCls1 = cls.df, sampleCls2 = hcc827GEFClass)

Filter Candidates

As the differential localization analysis is an outlier analysis, it will include analytical noise. To filter out such noise, PSM (Peptide-spectra-matching) counts and fractionation profile correlation analysis (Pearson) was done to identify strong candidates. The PSM count format for the input have to be the same between the compared conditions;


For each protein, the minimum PSM count between the two conditions is plotted against the fractionation profile (median) correlation between the two conditions. For proteins with different localizations between conditions, the fractionation profile differs and therefore we are expecting a low fractionation profile correlation. As a standard setting for filtering of analytical noise in the differential localization analysis we suggest to demand a fractionation profile correlation below 0.8, and a minimum PSM count of at least 3.
However, for the exploratory analysis, you can adjust the min.psm and pearson.cor parameters.

#sampleCls1 = sample 1 classification output
#s1PSM = sample 2 PSM count
#s1Quant = Sample 1 Quantification data
#sampleCls2 = sample 2 classification output
#s2PSM = sample 2 classification output
#sample2Quant = Sample 2 Quantification data
#min.psm = minumum psm count
#pearson.cor = perason correlation coefficient
candidate.df <- candidateRelocatedProteins(sampleCls1 = cls.df, 
                                s1PSM = hcc827CtrlPSMCount, 
                                s1Quant = hcc827Ctrl,
                                sampleCls2 = hcc827GEFClass,
                                s2PSM = hcc827GefPSMCount,
                                s2Quant = hcc827GEF,
                                min.psm = 2,
                                pearson.cor = 0.8)

Candidate subset of differentially localizing proteins can be annotated with names by setting annotation = TRUE, min.psm and pearson.cor

candidate2.df <- candidateRelocatedProteins(sampleCls1 = cls.df,
                                s1PSM = hcc827CtrlPSMCount, 
                                s1Quant = hcc827Ctrl, 
                                sampleCls2 = hcc827GEFClass, 
                                s2PSM = hcc827GefPSMCount, 
                                s2Quant = hcc827GEF, 
                                annotation = TRUE, 
                                min.psm = 9, 
                                pearson.cor = 0.05) 

Peptide/Exon/Transcript centric or PTM regulated localization

Our main analysis is based on gene-centric. However, based on the analytical depth of the data, peptide/exon/transcript centric classifications can be performed. Moreover, this approach is also applicable for post translation modification (PTM) enriched data.
Fundamentally, we will use the same classifiers, compartment and neighborhood levels thresholds and apply them to peptide/exon/transcript data.

Exon-centric classification

Here, we have provided subset of the HCC827 exon-centric data.


For the classification, we will use the gene-centric model that we built in section 3.7.

##recall the models
modelA <- cls[[1]]$model
modelB <- cls[[2]]$model

svmExternalData function greps replicates A and B, repectively. So the input data can include other features like, here, peptide counts.

exon.cls <- svmExternalData(df = hcc827exon, modelA = modelA, modelB= modelB)
exon.A <- exon.cls[[1]]
exon.B <- exon.cls[[2]]

Next steps are exactly same as what we did in section 3.7. We will use same thresholdsthat we have estimated in 3.7.1 and 3.7.3. Finally, we will merge two classifications same function used in 3.7.5.

exon.comp.cls <- applyThresholdCompartment(all.repA = exon.A[,2:17], 
                                    all.repB = exon.B[,2:17],
                                    threshold.df = t.c.df)

exon.neigh.cls <- applyThresholdNeighborhood(all.repA = exon.A[,2:17], 
                                    all.repB = exon.B[,2:17], 
                                    threshold.df = t.n.df)

exon.cls.df <- mergeCls(compartmentCls = exon.comp.cls, 
                        neighborhoodCls = exon.neigh.cls)

#same order
exon.cls.df <- exon.cls.df[rownames(exon.A),]

# we will add gene symbols as well as peptide count  
# (PSM count is also accepted) in case for comparing with 
# gene-centric classifications

exon.cls.df$GeneSymbol <- exon.A$Gene_Symbol
exon.cls.df$PeptideCount <- hcc827exon$PeptideCount

Comparison between gene and exon centric classification

The insteresting part of the exon classification is to detect deviated classification between gene centric classification. However, we enrich more noise than gene centric classification due to analtyical dept of the exon centric data. Therefore, we, additioanlly, internally calculate correlation between gene-centric data hcc827Ctrl and exon-centric data hcc827exon, and report number of peptides (PSM count works, too) that match to corresponding exon as an indication of the confidence of the results.

comp.df <- compareCls(geneCls = cls.df, exonCls = exon.cls.df)

You can easily vizualize/filter the results using correlations and number of peptides.


Session Information


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SubCellBarCode documentation built on Nov. 8, 2020, 5:26 p.m.