Description Usage Arguments Details Value Note Author(s) References See Also Examples
View source: R/tTestLnormAltN.R
Compute the sample size necessary to achieve a specified power for a one or twosample ttest, given the ratio of means, coefficient of variation, and significance level, assuming lognormal data.
1 2 3 4 
ratio.of.means 
numeric vector specifying the ratio of the first mean to the second mean.
When 
cv 
numeric vector of positive value(s) specifying the coefficient of
variation. When 
alpha 
numeric vector of numbers between 0 and 1 indicating the Type I error level
associated with the hypothesis test. The default value is 
power 
numeric vector of numbers between 0 and 1 indicating the power
associated with the hypothesis test. The default value is 
sample.type 
character string indicating whether to compute power based on a onesample or
twosample hypothesis test. When 
alternative 
character string indicating the kind of alternative hypothesis. The possible values
are 
approx 
logical scalar indicating whether to compute the power based on an approximation to
the noncentral tdistribution. The default value is 
n2 
numeric vector of sample sizes for group 2. The default value is

round.up 
logical scalar indicating whether to round up the values of the computed
sample size(s) to the next smallest integer. The default value is

n.max 
positive integer greater than 1 indicating the maximum sample size when 
tol 
numeric scalar indicating the toloerance to use in the

maxiter 
positive integer indicating the maximum number of iterations
argument to pass to the 
If the arguments ratio.of.means
, cv
, alpha
, power
, and
n2
are not all the same length, they are replicated to be the same length as
the length of the longest argument.
Formulas for the power of the ttest for lognormal data for specified values of
the sample size, ratio of means, and Type I error level are given in
the help file for tTestLnormAltPower
. The function
tTestLnormAltN
uses the uniroot
search algorithm to determine
the required sample size(s) for specified values of the power,
scaled difference, and Type I error level.
When sample.type="one.sample"
, or sample.type="two.sample"
and n2
is not supplied (so equal sample sizes for each group is
assumed), tTestLnormAltN
returns a numeric vector of sample sizes. When
sample.type="two.sample"
and n2
is supplied,
tTestLnormAltN
returns a list with two components called n1
and
n2
, specifying the sample sizes for each group.
See tTestLnormAltPower
.
Steven P. Millard ([email protected])
See tTestLnormAltPower
.
tTestLnormAltPower
, tTestLnormAltRatioOfMeans
,
plotTTestLnormAltDesign
, LognormalAlt,
t.test
, Hypothesis Tests.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134  # Look at how the required sample size for the onesample test increases with
# increasing required power:
seq(0.5, 0.9, by = 0.1)
# [1] 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
tTestLnormAltN(ratio.of.means = 1.5, power = seq(0.5, 0.9, by = 0.1))
# [1] 19 23 28 36 47
#
# Repeat the last example, but compute the sample size based on the approximate
# power instead of the exact power:
tTestLnormAltN(ratio.of.means = 1.5, power = seq(0.5, 0.9, by = 0.1), approx = TRUE)
# [1] 19 23 29 36 47
#==========
# Look at how the required sample size for the twosample ttest decreases with
# increasing ratio of means:
seq(1.5, 2, by = 0.1)
#[1] 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0
tTestLnormAltN(ratio.of.means = seq(1.5, 2, by = 0.1), sample.type = "two")
#[1] 111 83 65 54 45 39
#
# Look at how the required sample size for the twosample ttest decreases with
# increasing values of Type I error:
tTestLnormAltN(ratio.of.means = 1.5, alpha = c(0.001, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1),
sample.type = "two")
#[1] 209 152 111 92
#
# For the twosample ttest, compare the total sample size required to detect a
# ratio of means of 2 for equal sample sizes versus the case when the sample size
# for the second group is constrained to be 30. Assume a coefficient of variation
# of 1, a 5% significance level, and 95% power. Note that for the case of equal
# sample sizes, a total of 78 samples (39+39) are required, whereas when n2 is
# constrained to be 30, a total of 84 samples (54 + 30) are required.
tTestLnormAltN(ratio.of.means = 2, sample.type = "two")
#[1] 39
tTestLnormAltN(ratio.of.means = 2, n2 = 30)
#$n1:
#[1] 54
#
#$n2:
#[1] 30
#==========
# The guidance document Soil Screening Guidance: Technical Background Document
# (USEPA, 1996c, Part 4) discusses sampling design and sample size calculations
# for studies to determine whether the soil at a potentially contaminated site
# needs to be investigated for possible remedial action. Let 'theta' denote the
# average concentration of the chemical of concern. The guidance document
# establishes the following goals for the decision rule (USEPA, 1996c, p.87):
#
# Pr[Decide Don't Investigate  theta > 2 * SSL] = 0.05
#
# Pr[Decide to Investigate  theta <= (SSL/2)] = 0.2
#
# where SSL denotes the preestablished soil screening level.
#
# These goals translate into a Type I error of 0.2 for the null hypothesis
#
# H0: [theta / (SSL/2)] <= 1
#
# and a power of 95% for the specific alternative hypothesis
#
# Ha: [theta / (SSL/2)] = 4
#
# Assuming a lognormal distribution and the above values for Type I error and
# power, determine the required samples sizes associated with various values of
# the coefficient of variation for the onesample test. Based on these calculations,
# you need to take at least 6 soil samples to satisfy the requirements for the
# Type I and Type II errors when the coefficient of variation is 2.
cv < c(0.5, 1, 2)
N < tTestLnormAltN(ratio.of.means = 4, cv = cv, alpha = 0.2,
alternative = "greater")
names(N) < paste("CV=", cv, sep = "")
N
#CV=0.5 CV=1 CV=2
# 2 3 6
#
# Repeat the last example, but use the approximate power calculation instead of the
# exact. Using the approximate power calculation, you need 7 soil samples when the
# coefficient of variation is 2 (because the approximation underestimates the
# true power).
N < tTestLnormAltN(ratio.of.means = 4, cv = cv, alpha = 0.2,
alternative = "greater", approx = TRUE)
names(N) < paste("CV=", cv, sep = "")
N
#CV=0.5 CV=1 CV=2
# 3 5 7
#
# Repeat the last example, but use a Type I error of 0.05.
N < tTestLnormAltN(ratio.of.means = 4, cv = cv, alternative = "greater",
approx = TRUE)
names(N) < paste("CV=", cv, sep = "")
N
#CV=0.5 CV=1 CV=2
# 4 6 12
#==========
# Reproduce the second column of Table 2 in van Belle and Martin (1993, p.167).
tTestLnormAltN(ratio.of.means = 1.10, cv = seq(0.1, 0.8, by = 0.1),
power = 0.8, sample.type = "two.sample", approx = TRUE)
#[1] 19 69 150 258 387 533 691 856
#==========
# Clean up
#
rm(cv, N)

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