GeneralizedUmatrix-package: Credible Visualization for Two-Dimensional Projections of...

GeneralizedUmatrix-packageR Documentation

Credible Visualization for Two-Dimensional Projections of Data


Projections are common dimensionality reduction methods, which represent high-dimensional data in a two-dimensional space. However, when restricting the output space to two dimensions, which results in a two dimensional scatter plot (projection) of the data, low dimensional similarities do not represent high dimensional distances coercively [Thrun, 2018] <DOI: 10.1007/978-3-658-20540-9>. This could lead to a misleading interpretation of the underlying structures [Thrun, 2018]. By means of the 3D topographic map the generalized Umatrix is able to depict errors of these two-dimensional scatter plots. The package is derived from the book of Thrun, M.C.: "Projection Based Clustering through Self-Organization and Swarm Intelligence" (2018) <DOI:10.1007/978-3-658-20540-9> and the main algorithm called simplified self-organizing map for dimensionality reduction methods is published in <DOI: 10.1016/j.mex.2020.101093>.


For a brief introduction to GeneralizedUmatrix please see the vignette Introduction of the Generalized Umatrix Package.

For further details regarding the generalized Umatrix see [Thrun, 2018], chapter 4-5, or [Thrun/Ultsch, 2020].

If you want to verifiy your clustering result externally, you can use Heatmap or SilhouettePlot of the CRAN package DataVisualizations.

Index: This package was not yet installed at build time.


Michal Thrun

Maintainer: Michael Thrun <>


[Thrun/Ultsch, 2020] Thrun, M. C., & Ultsch, A.: Uncovering High-Dimensional Structures of Projections from Dimensionality Reduction Methods, MethodsX, Vol. 7, pp. 101093, DOI \Sexpr[results=rd]{tools:::Rd_expr_doi("10.1016/j.mex.2020.101093")}, 2020.

[Thrun, 2018] Thrun, M. C.: Projection Based Clustering through Self-Organization and Swarm Intelligence, doctoral dissertation 2017, Springer, Heidelberg, ISBN: 978-3-658-20539-3, \Sexpr[results=rd]{tools:::Rd_expr_doi("10.1007/978-3-658-20540-9")}, 2018.

[Ultsch/Thrun, 2017] Ultsch, A., & Thrun, M. C.: Credible Visualizations for Planar Projections, in Cottrell, M. (Ed.), 12th International Workshop on Self-Organizing Maps and Learning Vector Quantization, Clustering and Data Visualization (WSOM), IEEE Xplore, France, 2017.


res=cmdscale(d=InputDistances, k = 2, eig = TRUE, add = FALSE, x.ret = FALSE)
#see also ProjectionBasedClustering package for other common projection methods
#see DatabionicSwarm for projection method without parameters or objective function
# ProjectedPoints=DatabionicSwarm::Pswarm(Data)$ProjectedPoints


##Interactive Island Generation 
## from a tiled Umatrix (toroidal assumption)
## Not run: 
	Imx = ProjectionBasedClustering::interactiveGeneralizedUmatrixIsland(resUmatrix$Umatrix,

	resUmatrix$Bestmatches, Imx = Imx)

## End(Not run)
#External Verification
## Not run: 

 #if spherical cluster strcuture

## End(Not run)

GeneralizedUmatrix documentation built on May 31, 2023, 7:26 p.m.