Nothing

```
# ----- helper functions ---------------------------------------------------
# sample size search start values
#
# Sample size for a desired power, large sample approx.
# original 'large sample' sample size formula if diffmthreshold=0
# author D. Labes
# vectorizes properly if diffm is scalar and se a vector or both are vectors
# does not give the correct answer if one acceptance limit goes to Inf
.sampleN00 <- function(alpha=0.05, targetpower=0.8, ltheta1, ltheta2, diffm,
se, steps=2, bk=2, diffmthreshold=0.04)
{
# handle unsymmetrical BE acceptance ranges
dn <- pmin(abs(diffm-ltheta1), abs(diffm-ltheta2))
# return Inf if diffm outside, dn=0 accomplishes that
dn <- ifelse((diffm-ltheta1)<1.25e-5 | (ltheta2-diffm)<1.25e-5, 0, dn)
z1 <- qnorm(1-alpha)
# transform to limits symmetric around zero (if they are not)
locc <- (ltheta1+ltheta2)/2
diffm <- diffm - locc
ltheta1 <- ltheta1 - locc
ltheta2 <- -ltheta1
# within +-diffmthreshold diffm will be regarded as 0
# value diffmthreshold=0.04 corresponds roughly to log(0.96)
# with lower values there are many steps in sample size around between 0.95 and 1.
# no longer used. Zhangs formula instead
# vectorized solution
z2 <- ifelse(abs(diffm)>diffmthreshold, qnorm(targetpower),
qnorm(1-(1-targetpower)/2))
diffm <- ifelse(abs(diffm)>diffmthreshold, diffm, 0)
# 1-beta/2 seems only correct if ltheta1 = -ltheta2 ?
n0 <- (bk/2)*((z1+z2)*(se*sqrt(2)/dn))^2
# round up to next even >=
# seems Golkowski has used simple round
n0 <- steps*ceiling(n0/steps)
return(n0)
}
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
# 'large sample' sample size with one additional step via t-distribution
# author D. Labes
# bk = design constant, see known.designs()
# does not vectorize if se is a vector
.sampleN0 <- function(alpha=0.05, targetpower=0.8, ltheta1, ltheta2, diffm,
se, steps=2, bk=2, diffmthreshold=0.04)
{
# paranoia? swap
if (ltheta2<ltheta1) {h <- ltheta2; ltheta2 <- ltheta1; ltheta1 <-h}
z1 <- qnorm(1-alpha)
# value diffmthreshold=0.04 corresponds roughly to log(0.96)
# with lower values or 0 there are many steps around between 0.95 and 1
# in sampleN.TOST, no longer used but Zhang's formula instead
# vectorized solution
z2 <- ifelse(abs(diffm)>diffmthreshold, qnorm(targetpower), qnorm(1-(1-targetpower)/2))
diffm <- ifelse(abs(diffm)>diffmthreshold, diffm, 0)
#dn <- ifelse(diffm<0, diffm-ltheta1, diffm-ltheta2)
# handle unsymmetrical BE acceptance ranges, one may also be Inf, -Inf
dn <- pmin(abs(diffm-ltheta1), abs(diffm-ltheta2))
# return Inf if diffm outside, dn=0 accomplishes that
dn <- ifelse((diffm-ltheta1)<1.25e-5 | (ltheta2-diffm)<1.25e-5, 0, dn)
n0 <- (bk/2)*((z1+z2)*(se*sqrt(2)/dn))^2
if (is.finite(n0) & n0>2){
# make another step with t-distri
n0 <- ceiling(n0)
z1 <- qt(1-alpha, df=n0-2)
z2 <- ifelse(abs(diffm)>diffmthreshold, qt(targetpower, df=n0-2),
qt(1-(1-targetpower)/2, df=n0-2))
n0 <- (bk/2)*((z1+z2)*(se*sqrt(2)/dn))^2
}
# make an even multiple of step (=2 in case of 2x2 cross-over)
n0 <- steps*trunc(n0/steps)
# minimum sample size will be checked outside
return(n0)
}
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Paul Zhang (2003)
# A Simple Formula for Sample Size Calculation in Equivalence Studies
# Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics, 13:3, 529-538
.sampleN0_2 <- function(alpha=0.05, targetpower=0.8, ltheta1, ltheta2, diffm,
se, steps=2, bk=2)
{
# handle unsymmetric limits, Zhang's c0
c0 <- 0.5*exp(-7.06*(ltheta1+ltheta2)/(ltheta1-ltheta2))
# Zhang's formula, large sample
beta <- 1-targetpower
z1 <- qnorm(1-alpha)
fz <- ifelse(diffm<0, c0*exp(-7.06*diffm/ltheta1), c0*exp(-7.06*diffm/ltheta2))
# results in NaN if one of the acceptance range is Inf/-Inf
fz[is.nan(fz)|fz>=1] <- 0
z2 <- abs(qnorm((1-fz)*beta))
#dn <- ifelse(diffm<0, diffm-ltheta1, diffm-ltheta2)
dn <- pmin(abs(diffm-ltheta1), abs(diffm-ltheta2))
# return Inf if diffm outside, dn=0 accomplishes that
dn <- ifelse((diffm-ltheta1)<1.25e-5 | (ltheta2-diffm)<1.25e-5, 0, dn)
n0 <- (bk/2)*((z1+z2)*(se*sqrt(2)/dn))^2
# round up to next even >=
n0 <- steps*ceiling(n0/steps)
return(n0)
}
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
# variant of Zhangs 'large sample' formula with 'smooth' transition from beta/2
# to beta and a threshold
# vectorizes properly if diffm is scalar and se a vector or both are vectors
# needs finite ltheta1, ltheta2!
.sampleN0_3 <- function(alpha=0.05, targetpower=0.8, ltheta1, ltheta2, diffm,
se, steps=2, bk=2)
{
# difference for denominator
#dn <- ifelse(diffm<0, diffm-ltheta1, diffm-ltheta2)
dn <- pmin(abs(diffm-ltheta1), abs(diffm-ltheta2))
# return Inf if diffm outside, dn=0 accomplishes that
dn <- ifelse((diffm-ltheta1)<1.25e-5 | (ltheta2-diffm)<1.25e-5, 0, dn)
# transform to limits symmetric around zero (if they are not)
locc <- (ltheta1+ltheta2)/2
diffm <- diffm - locc
ltheta1 <- ltheta1 - locc
ltheta2 <- -ltheta1
delta <- abs((ltheta2-ltheta1)/2)
z1 <- qnorm(1-alpha)
beta <- 1-targetpower
c <- ifelse(is.finite(diffm), abs(diffm/delta), 1)
# probability for second normal quantil
# if c<0.2 is in general a good choice needs to be tested
p2 <- ifelse(c<0.2, 1-(1-0.5*exp(-7.06*c))*beta, 1-beta)
z2 <- qnorm(p2)
n0 <- (bk/2)*((z1+z2)*(se*sqrt(2)/dn))^2
# round up to next even >=
n0 <- steps*ceiling(n0/steps)
return(n0)
}
```

**Any scripts or data that you put into this service are public.**

Embedding an R snippet on your website

Add the following code to your website.

For more information on customizing the embed code, read Embedding Snippets.