# decision2S: Decision Function for 2 Sample Designs In RBesT: R Bayesian Evidence Synthesis Tools

## Description

The function sets up a 2 sample one-sided decision function with an arbitrary number of conditions on the difference distribution.

## Usage

 ``` 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13``` ```decision2S( pc = 0.975, qc = 0, lower.tail = TRUE, link = c("identity", "logit", "log") ) oc2Sdecision( pc = 0.975, qc = 0, lower.tail = TRUE, link = c("identity", "logit", "log") ) ```

## Arguments

 `pc` Vector of critical cumulative probabilities of the difference distribution. `qc` Vector of respective critical values of the difference distribution. Must match the length of `pc`. `lower.tail` Logical; if `TRUE` (default), probabilities are P(X ≤q x), otherwise, P(X > x). `link` Enables application of a link function prior to evaluating the difference distribution. Can take one of the values `identity` (default), `logit` or `log`.

## Details

This function creates a one-sided decision function on the basis of the difference distribution in a 2 sample situation. To support double criterion designs, see Neuenschwander et al., 2010, an arbitrary number of criterions can be given. The decision function demands that the probability mass below the critical value `qc` of the difference x_1 - x_2 is at least `pc`. Hence, for `lower.tail=TRUE` condition i is equivalent to

P(x_1 - x_2 ≤q q_{c,i}) > p_{c,i}

and the decision function is implemented as indicator function using the heavy-side step function H which is 0 for x ≤q 0 and 1 for x > 0. As all conditions must be met, the final indicator function returns

Π_i H_i(P(x_1 - x_2 ≤q q_{c,i}) - p_{c,i} ),

which is 1 if all conditions are met and 0 otherwise. For `lower.tail=FALSE` differences must be greater than the given quantiles `qc`.

Note that whenever a `link` other than `identity` is requested, then the underlying densities are first transformed using the link function and then the probabilties for the differences are calculated in the transformed space. Hence, for a binary endpoint the default `identity` link will calculate risk differences, the `logit` link will lead to decisions based on the differences in `logit`s corresponding to a criterion based on the log-odds. The `log` link will evaluate ratios instead of absolute differences which could be useful for a binary endpoint or counting rates. The respective critical quantiles `qc` must be given on the transformed scale.

## Value

The function returns a decision function which takes three arguments. The first and second argument are expected to be mixture (posterior) distributions from which the difference distribution is formed and all conditions are tested. The third argument determines if the function acts as an indicator function or if the function returns the distance from the decision boundary for each condition in log-space. That is, the distance is 0 at the decision boundary, negative for a 0 decision and positive for a 1 decision.

## Functions

• `oc2Sdecision`: Deprecated old function name. Please use `decision2S` instead.

## References

Gsponer T, Gerber F, Bornkamp B, Ohlssen D, Vandemeulebroecke M, Schmidli H.A practical guide to Bayesian group sequential designs. Pharm. Stat.. 2014; 13: 71-80

Other design2S: `decision2S_boundary()`, `oc2S()`, `pos2S()`
 ``` 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32``` ```# see Gsponer et al., 2010 priorT <- mixnorm(c(1, 0, 0.001), sigma=88, param="mn") priorP <- mixnorm(c(1, -49, 20 ), sigma=88, param="mn") # the success criteria is for delta which are larger than some # threshold value which is why we set lower.tail=FALSE successCrit <- decision2S(c(0.95, 0.5), c(0, 50), FALSE) # the futility criterion acts in the opposite direction futilityCrit <- decision2S(c(0.90) , c(40), TRUE) print(successCrit) print(futilityCrit) # consider decision for specific outcomes postP_interim <- postmix(priorP, n=10, m=-50) postT_interim <- postmix(priorT, n=20, m=-80) futilityCrit( postP_interim, postT_interim ) successCrit( postP_interim, postT_interim ) # Binary endpoint with double criterion decision on log-odds scale # 95% certain positive difference and an odds ratio of 2 at least decL2 <- decision2S(c(0.95, 0.5), c(0, log(2)), lower.tail=FALSE, link="logit") # 95% certain positive difference and an odds ratio of 3 at least decL3 <- decision2S(c(0.95, 0.5), c(0, log(3)), lower.tail=FALSE, link="logit") # data scenario post1 <- postmix(mixbeta(c(1, 1, 1)), n=40, r=10) post2 <- postmix(mixbeta(c(1, 1, 1)), n=40, r=18) # positive outcome and a median odds ratio of at least 2 ... decL2(post2, post1) # ... but not more than 3 decL3(post2, post1) ```