summarise: Summarise each group down to one row

View source: R/summarise.R

summariseR Documentation

Summarise each group down to one row


summarise() creates a new data frame. It returns one row for each combination of grouping variables; if there are no grouping variables, the output will have a single row summarising all observations in the input. It will contain one column for each grouping variable and one column for each of the summary statistics that you have specified.

summarise() and summarize() are synonyms.


summarise(.data, ..., .by = NULL, .groups = NULL)

summarize(.data, ..., .by = NULL, .groups = NULL)



A data frame, data frame extension (e.g. a tibble), or a lazy data frame (e.g. from dbplyr or dtplyr). See Methods, below, for more details.


<data-masking> Name-value pairs of summary functions. The name will be the name of the variable in the result.

The value can be:

  • A vector of length 1, e.g. min(x), n(), or sum(

  • A data frame, to add multiple columns from a single expression.

[Deprecated] Returning values with size 0 or >1 was deprecated as of 1.1.0. Please use reframe() for this instead.



<tidy-select> Optionally, a selection of columns to group by for just this operation, functioning as an alternative to group_by(). For details and examples, see ?dplyr_by.


[Experimental] Grouping structure of the result.

  • "drop_last": dropping the last level of grouping. This was the only supported option before version 1.0.0.

  • "drop": All levels of grouping are dropped.

  • "keep": Same grouping structure as .data.

  • "rowwise": Each row is its own group.

When .groups is not specified, it is chosen based on the number of rows of the results:

  • If all the results have 1 row, you get "drop_last".

  • If the number of rows varies, you get "keep" (note that returning a variable number of rows was deprecated in favor of reframe(), which also unconditionally drops all levels of grouping).

In addition, a message informs you of that choice, unless the result is ungrouped, the option "dplyr.summarise.inform" is set to FALSE, or when summarise() is called from a function in a package.


An object usually of the same type as .data.

  • The rows come from the underlying group_keys().

  • The columns are a combination of the grouping keys and the summary expressions that you provide.

  • The grouping structure is controlled by the ⁠.groups=⁠ argument, the output may be another grouped_df, a tibble or a rowwise data frame.

  • Data frame attributes are not preserved, because summarise() fundamentally creates a new data frame.

Useful functions

  • Center: mean(), median()

  • Spread: sd(), IQR(), mad()

  • Range: min(), max(),

  • Position: first(), last(), nth(),

  • Count: n(), n_distinct()

  • Logical: any(), all()

Backend variations

The data frame backend supports creating a variable and using it in the same summary. This means that previously created summary variables can be further transformed or combined within the summary, as in mutate(). However, it also means that summary variables with the same names as previous variables overwrite them, making those variables unavailable to later summary variables.

This behaviour may not be supported in other backends. To avoid unexpected results, consider using new names for your summary variables, especially when creating multiple summaries.


This function is a generic, which means that packages can provide implementations (methods) for other classes. See the documentation of individual methods for extra arguments and differences in behaviour.

The following methods are currently available in loaded packages: \Sexpr[stage=render,results=rd]{dplyr:::methods_rd("summarise")}.

See Also

Other single table verbs: arrange(), filter(), mutate(), reframe(), rename(), select(), slice()


# A summary applied to ungrouped tbl returns a single row
mtcars %>%
  summarise(mean = mean(disp), n = n())

# Usually, you'll want to group first
mtcars %>%
  group_by(cyl) %>%
  summarise(mean = mean(disp), n = n())

# Each summary call removes one grouping level (since that group
# is now just a single row)
mtcars %>%
  group_by(cyl, vs) %>%
  summarise(cyl_n = n()) %>%

# BEWARE: reusing variables may lead to unexpected results
mtcars %>%
  group_by(cyl) %>%
  summarise(disp = mean(disp), sd = sd(disp))

# Refer to column names stored as strings with the `.data` pronoun:
var <- "mass"
summarise(starwars, avg = mean(.data[[var]], na.rm = TRUE))
# Learn more in ?rlang::args_data_masking

# In dplyr 1.1.0, returning multiple rows per group was deprecated in favor
# of `reframe()`, which never messages and always returns an ungrouped
# result:
mtcars %>%
   group_by(cyl) %>%
   summarise(qs = quantile(disp, c(0.25, 0.75)), prob = c(0.25, 0.75))
# ->
mtcars %>%
   group_by(cyl) %>%
   reframe(qs = quantile(disp, c(0.25, 0.75)), prob = c(0.25, 0.75))

dplyr documentation built on Nov. 17, 2023, 5:08 p.m.