Description Usage Arguments Value Note Author(s) Source References See Also Examples

This function finds the best estimates of mean and environmental variance for beta-binomial vital rates, using a brute force search for the best adjusted estimates from a very large number of combinations of different possible mean and variance values.

1 | ```
Kendall(rates, grades=1000, maxvar=0.2,minvar=0.00001, maxmean=1, minmean=0.01)
``` |

`rates` |
a matrix or dataframe with four columns: Rate identifier, Year, Total number of starting individuals, Number growing (or surviving). |

`grades` |
number of different levels of means and variances to try, default is 1000 |

`maxvar` |
maximum variance to search over, default is 0.20. The maximum ever possible is 0.25 and searching a narrower range will improve the accuracy of the answer. |

`minvar` |
minimum variance to search, default is 0.00001. |

`maxmean` |
maximum limit on the mean values to search, default 1 |

`minmean` |
minimum limit on the mean values to search, default 0.01 |

A list with estimates and confidence intervals

`est` |
a matrix with 5 columns: (1) estimated mean, (2) Kendall's MLE mean, (3) estimated variance, (4) Kendall's MLE variance, (5) Kendall's unbiased MLE variance. |

`ci` |
a matrix with 95% confidence limits for the Kendall's mean and unbiased variance estimates with 4 columns: (1) low and (3) high mean limits, (3) low and (4) high variance limits. |

Note that it may deliver warning messages of : 'no finite arguments to min; returning Inf', indicating use of very low values for variance, but this is not a malfunction.

Adapted to R from Morris \& Doak (2002: 267-270) by Patrick Nantel.

converted Matlab code from Box 8.2 in Morris and Doak (2002)

Kendall, B. E. 1998. Estimating the magnitude of environmental stochasticity in survivorship data. Ecological Applications 8(1): 184-193.

Morris, W. F., and D. F. Doak. 2002. Quantitative conservation biology: Theory and practice of population viability analysis. Sinauer, Sunderland, Massachusetts, USA.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 | ```
## desert tortoise input from Box 8.2 - compare results to Table 8.3
tor<-data.frame(rate=rep(c("g4","g5","g6"),each=3),
year=rep(1:3,3), ## representing 70s, early 80s, late 80s
start=c(17,15,7,22,19,4,32,31,10),
grow=c(8,1,0,5,5,0,2,1,0))
## use fewer grades for faster loop
tor.est<-Kendall(tor, grades=200)
tor.est
data(woodpecker)
wp.est <- Kendall(woodpecker, grades=200)
wp.est
``` |

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