R/encoding_detection.R

Defines functions stri_enc_detect2 stri_enc_detect stri_enc_isutf8 stri_enc_isascii stri_enc_isutf32le stri_enc_isutf32be stri_enc_isutf16le stri_enc_isutf16be

Documented in stri_enc_detect stri_enc_detect2 stri_enc_isascii stri_enc_isutf16be stri_enc_isutf16le stri_enc_isutf32be stri_enc_isutf32le stri_enc_isutf8

# kate: default-dictionary en_US

## This file is part of the 'stringi' package for R.
## Copyright (c) 2013-2021, Marek Gagolewski <https://www.gagolewski.com>
## All rights reserved.
##
## Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
## modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
##
## 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice,
## this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
##
## 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice,
## this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation
## and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
##
## 3. Neither the name of the copyright holder nor the names of its
## contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from
## this software without specific prior written permission.
##
## THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS
## 'AS IS' AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING,
## BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS
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#' @title
#' Check If a Data Stream Is Possibly in UTF-16 or UTF-32
#'
#' @description
#' These functions detect whether a given byte stream is
#' valid UTF-16LE, UTF-16BE, UTF-32LE, or UTF-32BE.
#'
#' @details
#' These functions are independent of the way \R marks encodings in
#' character strings (see \link{Encoding} and \link{stringi-encoding}).
#' Most often, these functions act on raw vectors.
#'
#' A result of \code{FALSE} means that a string is surely not valid UTF-16
#' or UTF-32. However, false positives are possible.
#'
#' Also note that a data stream may be sometimes classified
#' as both valid UTF-16LE and UTF-16BE.
#'
#' @param str character vector, a raw vector, or
#' a list of \code{raw} vectors
#'
#' @return Returns a logical vector.
#'
#' @rdname stri_enc_isutf16
#' @family encoding_detection
#' @export
stri_enc_isutf16be <- function(str)
{
    .Call(C_stri_enc_isutf16be, str)
}


#' @rdname stri_enc_isutf16
#' @export
stri_enc_isutf16le <- function(str)
{
    .Call(C_stri_enc_isutf16le, str)
}


#' @rdname stri_enc_isutf16
#' @export
stri_enc_isutf32be <- function(str)
{
    .Call(C_stri_enc_isutf32be, str)
}


#' @rdname stri_enc_isutf16
#' @export
stri_enc_isutf32le <- function(str)
{
    .Call(C_stri_enc_isutf32le, str)
}


#' @title
#' Check If a Data Stream Is Possibly in ASCII
#'
#' @description
#' The function checks whether all bytes in a string are <= 127.
#'
#' @details
#' This function is independent of the way \R marks encodings in
#' character strings (see \link{Encoding} and \link{stringi-encoding}).
#'
#' @param str character vector, a raw vector, or
#' a list of \code{raw} vectors
#'
#' @return Returns a logical vector.
#' The i-th element indicates whether the i-th string
#' corresponds to a valid ASCII byte sequence.
#'
#' @examples
#' stri_enc_isascii(letters[1:3])
#' stri_enc_isascii('\u0105\u0104')
#'
#' @family encoding_detection
#' @export
stri_enc_isascii <- function(str)
{
    .Call(C_stri_enc_isascii, str)
}


#' @title
#' Check If a Data Stream Is Possibly in UTF-8
#'
#' @description
#' The function checks whether given sequences of bytes forms
#' a proper UTF-8 string.
#'
#' @details
#' \code{FALSE} means that a string is certainly not valid UTF-8.
#' However, false positives are possible. For instance,
#' \code{(c4,85)} represents ('a with ogonek') in UTF-8
#' as well as ('A umlaut', 'Ellipsis') in WINDOWS-1250.
#' Also note that UTF-8, as well as most 8-bit encodings, extend ASCII
#' (note that \code{\link{stri_enc_isascii}} implies that
#' \code{\link{stri_enc_isutf8}}).
#'
#' However, the longer the sequence,
#' the greater the possibility that the result
#' is indeed in UTF-8 -- this is because not all sequences of bytes
#' are valid UTF-8.
#'
#' This function is independent of the way \R marks encodings in
#' character strings (see \link{Encoding} and \link{stringi-encoding}).
#'
#' @param str character vector, a raw vector, or
#' a list of \code{raw} vectors
#'
#' @return Returns a logical vector.
#' Its i-th element indicates whether the i-th string
#' corresponds to a valid UTF-8 byte sequence.
#'
#' @examples
#' stri_enc_isutf8(letters[1:3])
#' stri_enc_isutf8('\u0105\u0104')
#' stri_enc_isutf8('\u1234\u0222')
#'
#' @family encoding_detection
#' @export
stri_enc_isutf8 <- function(str)
{
    .Call(C_stri_enc_isutf8, str)
}



#' @title
#' Detect Character Set and Language
#'
#' @description
#' This function uses the \pkg{ICU} engine to determine the character set,
#' or encoding, of character data in an unknown format.
#'
#' @details
#' Vectorized over \code{str} and \code{filter_angle_brackets}.
#'
#' For a character vector input, merging all text lines
#' via \code{\link{stri_flatten}(str, collapse='\n')}
#' might be needed if \code{str} has been obtained via a call to
#' \code{readLines} and in fact represents an image of a single text file.
#'
#' This is, at best, an imprecise operation using statistics and heuristics.
#' Because of this, detection works best if you supply at least a few hundred
#' bytes of character data that is mostly in a single language.
#' However, because the detection only looks at a limited amount of the input
#' data, some of the returned character sets may fail to handle all of the
#' input data. Note that in some cases,
#' the language can be determined along with the encoding.
#'
#' Several different techniques are used for character set detection.
#' For multi-byte encodings, the sequence of bytes is checked for legible
#' patterns. The detected characters are also checked against a list of
#' frequently used characters in that encoding. For single byte encodings,
#' the data is checked against a list of the most commonly occurring three
#' letter groups for each language that can be written using that encoding.
#'
#' The detection process can be configured to optionally ignore
#' HTML or XML style markup (using \pkg{ICU}'s internal facilities),
#' which can interfere with the detection
#' process by changing the statistics.
#'
#' This function should most often be used for byte-marked input strings,
#' especially after loading them from text files and before the main
#' conversion with \code{\link{stri_encode}}.
#' The input encoding is of course not taken into account here, even
#' if marked.
#'
#' The following table shows all the encodings that can be detected:
#'
#' \tabular{ll}{
#' \strong{Character_Set} \tab \strong{Languages}\cr
#' UTF-8 \tab -- \cr
#' UTF-16BE \tab -- \cr
#' UTF-16LE \tab -- \cr
#' UTF-32BE \tab -- \cr
#' UTF-32LE \tab -- \cr
#' Shift_JIS \tab Japanese \cr
#' ISO-2022-JP \tab Japanese \cr
#' ISO-2022-CN \tab Simplified Chinese \cr
#' ISO-2022-KR \tab Korean \cr
#' GB18030 \tab Chinese \cr
#' Big5 \tab Traditional Chinese \cr
#' EUC-JP \tab Japanese \cr
#' EUC-KR \tab Korean \cr
#' ISO-8859-1 \tab Danish, Dutch, English, French, German, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Swedish \cr
#' ISO-8859-2 \tab Czech, Hungarian, Polish, Romanian \cr
#' ISO-8859-5 \tab Russian \cr
#' ISO-8859-6 \tab Arabic \cr
#' ISO-8859-7 \tab Greek \cr
#' ISO-8859-8 \tab Hebrew \cr
#' ISO-8859-9 \tab Turkish \cr
#' windows-1250 \tab Czech, Hungarian, Polish, Romanian \cr
#' windows-1251 \tab Russian \cr
#' windows-1252 \tab Danish, Dutch, English, French, German, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Swedish \cr
#' windows-1253 \tab Greek \cr
#' windows-1254 \tab Turkish \cr
#' windows-1255 \tab Hebrew \cr
#' windows-1256 \tab Arabic \cr
#' KOI8-R \tab Russian \cr
#' IBM420 \tab Arabic \cr
#' IBM424 \tab Hebrew \cr
#' }
#'
#'
#' @param str character vector, a raw vector, or
#' a list of \code{raw} vectors
#'
#' @param filter_angle_brackets logical; If filtering is enabled,
#' text within angle brackets ('<' and '>') will be removed before detection,
#' which will remove most HTML or XML markup.
#'
#' @return Returns a list of length equal to the length of \code{str}.
#' Each list element is a data frame with the following three named vectors
#' representing all the guesses:
#' \itemize{
#'    \item \code{Encoding} -- string; guessed encodings; \code{NA} on failure,
#'    \item \code{Language} -- string; guessed languages; \code{NA} if the language could
#'    not be determined (e.g., in case of UTF-8),
#'    \item \code{Confidence} -- numeric in [0,1]; the higher the value,
#'    the more confidence there is in the match; \code{NA} on failure.
#' }
#' The guesses are ordered by decreasing confidence.
#'
#' @examples
#' ## Not run:
#' ## f <- rawToChar(readBin('test.txt', 'raw', 100000))
#' ## stri_enc_detect(f)
#'
#' @references
#' \emph{Character Set Detection} -- ICU User Guide,
#' \url{https://unicode-org.github.io/icu/userguide/conversion/detection.html}
#'
#' @family encoding_detection
#' @export
stri_enc_detect <- function(str, filter_angle_brackets = FALSE)
{
    lapply(.Call(C_stri_enc_detect, str, filter_angle_brackets),
        as.data.frame, stringsAsFactors = FALSE)
}


#' @title
#' [DEPRECATED] Detect Locale-Sensitive Character Encoding
#'
#' @description
#' This function tries to detect character encoding
#' in case the language of text is known.
#'
#'
#' @details
#' Vectorized over \code{str}.
#'
#' First, the text is checked whether it is valid
#' UTF-32BE, UTF-32LE, UTF-16BE, UTF-16LE, UTF-8
#' (as in \code{\link{stri_enc_detect}},
#' this is roughly inspired by \pkg{ICU}'s \code{i18n/csrucode.cpp}) or ASCII.
#'
#'
#' If \code{locale} is not \code{NA} and the above fails,
#' the text is checked for the number of occurrences
#' of language-specific code points (data provided by the \pkg{ICU} library)
#' converted to all possible 8-bit encodings
#' that fully cover the indicated language.
#' The encoding is selected based on the greatest number of total
#' byte hits.
#'
#' The guess is of course imprecise,
#' as it is obtained using statistics and heuristics.
#' Because of this, detection works best if you supply at least a few hundred
#' bytes of character data that is in a single language.
#'
#'
#' If you have no initial guess on the language and encoding, try with
#' \code{\link{stri_enc_detect}} (uses \pkg{ICU} facilities).
#'
#' @param str character vector, a raw vector, or
#' a list of \code{raw} vectors
#' @param locale \code{NULL} or \code{''}
#' for default locale,
#' \code{NA} for just checking the UTF-* family,
#' or a single string with locale identifier.
#'
#' @return
#' Just like \code{\link{stri_enc_detect}},
#' this function returns a list of length equal to the length of \code{str}.
#' Each list element is a data frame with the following three named components:
#' \itemize{
#'    \item \code{Encoding} -- string; guessed encodings; \code{NA} on failure
#'    (if and only if \code{encodings} is empty),
#'    \item \code{Language} -- always \code{NA},
#'    \item \code{Confidence} -- numeric in [0,1]; the higher the value,
#'    the more confidence there is in the match; \code{NA} on failure.
#' }
#' The guesses are ordered by decreasing confidence.
#'
#' @family locale_sensitive
#' @family encoding_detection
#' @export
stri_enc_detect2 <- function(str, locale = NULL)
{
    suppressWarnings(lapply(.Call(C_stri_enc_detect2, str, locale), as.data.frame,
        stringsAsFactors = FALSE))
}

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stringi documentation built on July 16, 2021, 9:09 a.m.