localG: G and Gstar local spatial statistics

Description Usage Arguments Details Value Note Author(s) References Examples

View source: R/localG.R

Description

The local spatial statistic G is calculated for each zone based on the spatial weights object used. The value returned is a Z-value, and may be used as a diagnostic tool. High positive values indicate the posibility of a local cluster of high values of the variable being analysed, very low relative values a similar cluster of low values. For inference, a Bonferroni-type test is suggested in the references, where tables of critical values may be found (see also details below).

Usage

1
2
3
localG(x, listw, zero.policy=NULL, spChk=NULL, return_internals=FALSE, GeoDa=FALSE)
localG_perm(x, listw, nsim=499, zero.policy=NULL, spChk=NULL, return_internals=FALSE,
 iseed=NULL)

Arguments

x

a numeric vector the same length as the neighbours list in listw

listw

a listw object created for example by nb2listw

zero.policy

default NULL, use global option value; if TRUE assign zero to the lagged value of zones without neighbours, if FALSE assign NA

spChk

should the data vector names be checked against the spatial objects for identity integrity, TRUE, or FALSE, default NULL to use get.spChkOption()

return_internals

default FALSE, if TRUE, return internal values of G, EI and VG as as attribute matrix

GeoDa

default FALSE, if TRUE, drop x values for no-neighbour and self-neighbour only observations from all summations

nsim

default 499, number of conditonal permutation simulations

iseed

default NULL, used to set the seed for possible parallel RNGs

Details

If the neighbours member of listw has a "self.included" attribute set to TRUE, the Gstar variant, including the self-weight w_{ii} > 0, is calculated and returned. The returned vector will have a "gstari" attribute set to TRUE. Self-weights can be included by using the include.self function before converting the neighbour list to a spatial weights list with nb2listw as shown below in the example.

The critical values of the statistic under assumptions given in the references for the 95th percentile are for n=1: 1.645, n=50: 3.083, n=100: 3.289, n=1000: 3.886.

Value

A vector of G or Gstar values, with attributes "gstari" set to TRUE or FALSE, "call" set to the function call, and class "localG".

Note

Conditional permutations added for comparative purposes; permutations are over the whole data vector omitting the observation itself.

Author(s)

Roger Bivand Roger.Bivand@nhh.no

References

Ord, J. K. and Getis, A. 1995 Local spatial autocorrelation statistics: distributional issues and an application. Geographical Analysis, 27, 286–306; Getis, A. and Ord, J. K. 1996 Local spatial statistics: an overview. In P. Longley and M. Batty (eds) Spatial analysis: modelling in a GIS environment (Cambridge: Geoinformation International), 261–277; Bivand RS, Wong DWS 2018 Comparing implementations of global and local indicators of spatial association. TEST, 27(3), 716–748 doi: 10.1007/s11749-018-0599-x

Examples

 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
data(getisord, package="spData")
# spData 0.3.2 changes x, y, xyz object names to go_x, go_y, go_xyz to
# avoid putting these objects into the global environment via lazy loading
if (exists("go_xyz") && packageVersion("spData") >= "0.3.2") {
  xyz <- go_xyz
  x <- go_x
  y <- go_y
}
xycoords <- cbind(xyz$x, xyz$y)
nb30 <- dnearneigh(xycoords, 0, 30)
G30 <- localG(xyz$val, nb2listw(nb30, style="B"))
G30[length(xyz$val)-136]
set.seed(1)
G30_sim <- localG_perm(xyz$val, nb2listw(nb30, style="B"))
G30_sim[length(xyz$val)-136]
nb60 <- dnearneigh(xycoords, 0, 60)
G60 <- localG(xyz$val, nb2listw(nb60, style="B"))
G60[length(xyz$val)-136]
nb90 <- dnearneigh(xycoords, 0, 90)
G90 <- localG(xyz$val, nb2listw(nb90, style="B"))
G90[length(xyz$val)-136]
nb120 <- dnearneigh(xycoords, 0, 120)
G120 <- localG(xyz$val, nb2listw(nb120, style="B"))
G120[length(xyz$val)-136]
nb150 <- dnearneigh(xycoords, 0, 150)
G150 <- localG(xyz$val, nb2listw(nb150, style="B"))
G150[length(xyz$val)-136]
brks <- seq(-5,5,1)
cm.col <- cm.colors(length(brks)-1)
image(x, y, t(matrix(G30, nrow=16, ncol=16, byrow=TRUE)),
  breaks=brks, col=cm.col, asp=1)
text(xyz$x, xyz$y, round(G30, digits=1), cex=0.7)
polygon(c(195,225,225,195), c(195,195,225,225), lwd=2)
title(main=expression(paste("Values of the ", G[i], " statistic")))
G30s <- localG(xyz$val, nb2listw(include.self(nb30),
 style="B"))
cat("value according to Getis and Ord's eq. 14.2, p. 263 (1996)\n")
G30s[length(xyz$val)-136]
cat(paste("value given by Getis and Ord (1996), p. 267",
  "(division by n-1 rather than n \n in variance)\n"))
G30s[length(xyz$val)-136] *
  (sqrt(sum(scale(xyz$val, scale=FALSE)^2)/length(xyz$val)) /
  sqrt(var(xyz$val)))
image(x, y, t(matrix(G30s, nrow=16, ncol=16, byrow=TRUE)),
  breaks=brks, col=cm.col, asp=1)
text(xyz$x, xyz$y, round(G30s, digits=1), cex=0.7)
polygon(c(195,225,225,195), c(195,195,225,225), lwd=2)
title(main=expression(paste("Values of the ", G[i]^"*", " statistic")))

r-spatial/spdep documentation built on Sept. 14, 2021, 11:48 p.m.