Statistics of Deadly Quarrels

Description

The Statistics Of Deadly Quarrels by Lewis Fry Richardson (1960) is one of the earlier attempts at quantification of historical conflict behavior.

The data set contains 779 dyadic deadly quarrels that cover a time period from 1809 to 1949. A quarrel consists of one pair of belligerents, and is identified by its beginning date and magnitude (log 10 of the number of deaths). Neither actor in a quarrel is identified by name.

Because Richardson took a dyad of belligerents as his unit, a given war, such as World War I or World War II comprises multiple observations, for all pairs of belligerents. For example, there are forty-four pairs of belligerents coded for World War I.

For each quarrel, the nominal variables include the type of quarrel, as well as political, cultural, and economic similarities and dissimilarities between the pair of combatants.

Usage

1
data(Quarrels)

Format

A data frame with 779 observations on the following 84 variables.

ID

V84: Id sequence

year

V1: Begin date of quarrel

international

V2: Nation vs nation

colonial

V3: Nation vs colony

revolution

V4: Revolution or civil war

nat.grp

V5: Nation vs gp in other nation

grp.grpSame

V6: Grp vs grp (same nation)

grp.grpDif

V7: Grp vs grp (between nations)

numGroups

V8: Num grps agst which fighting

months

V9: Num months fighting

pairs

V10: Num pairs in whole matrix

monthsPairs

V11: Num mons for all in mtrx

logDeaths

V12: Log (killed) matrix

deaths

V13: Total killed for matrix

exchangeGoods

V14: Gp sent goods to other

obstacleGoods

V15: Gp puts obstacles to goods

intermarriageOK

V16: Present intermarriages

intermarriageBan

V17: Intermarriages banned

simBody

V18: Similar body characteristics

difBody

V19: Difference in body characteristics

simDress

V20: Similarity of customs (dress)

difDress

V21: Difference of customs (dress)

eqWealth

V22: Common level of wealth

difWealth

V23: Difference in wealth

simMariagCust

V24: Similar marriage cusomst

difMariagCust

V25: Different marriage customs

simRelig

V26: Similar religeon or philosophy of life

difRelig

V27: Religeon or philisophy felt different

philanthropy

V28: General philanthropy

restrictMigration

V29: Restricted immigrations

sameLanguage

V30: Common mother tongue

difLanguage

V31: Different languages

simArtSci

V32: Similar science, arts

travel

V33: Travel

ignorance

V34: Ignorant of other/both

simPersLiberty

V35: Personal liberty similar

difPersLiberty

V36: More personal liberty

sameGov

V37: Common government

sameGovYrs

V38: Years since common govt established

prevConflict

V39: Belligerents fought previously

prevConflictYrs

V40: Years since belligerents fought

chronicFighting

V41: Chronic figthing between belligerents

persFriendship

V42: Autocrats personal friends

persResentment

V43: Leaders personal resentment

difLegal

V44: Annoyingly different legal systems

nonintervention

V45: Policy of nonintervention

thirdParty

V46: Led by 3rd group to conflict

supportEnemy

V47: Supported others enemy

attackAlly

V48: Attacked ally of other

rivalsLand

V49: Rivals territory concess

rivalsTrade

V50: Rivals trade

churchPower

V51: Church civil power

noExtension

V52: Policy not extending ter

territory

V53: Desired territory

habitation

V54: Wanted habitation

minerals

V55: Desired minerals

StrongHold

V56: Wanted strategic stronghold

taxation

V57: Taxed other

loot

V58: Wanted loot

objectedWar

V59: Objected to war

enjoyFight

V60: Enjoyed fighting

pride

V61: Elated by strong pride

overpopulated

V62: Insufficient land for population

fightForPay

V63: Fought only for pay

joinWinner

V64: Desired to join winners

otherDesiredWar

V65: Quarrel desired by other

propaganda3rd

V66: Issued of propaganda to third parties

protection

V67: Offered protection

sympathy

V68: Sympathized under control

debt

V69: Owed money to others

prevAllies

V70: Had fought as allies

yearsAllies

V71: Years since fought as allies

intermingled

V72: Had intermingled on territory

interbreeding

V73: Interbreeding between groups

propadanda

V74: Issued propaganda to other group

orderedObey

V75: Ordered other to obey

commerceOther

V76: Commercial enterprises

feltStronger

V77: Felt stronger

competeIntellect

V78: Competed succesfully intellectual occ

insecureGovt

V79: Government insecure

prepWar

V80: Preparations for war

RegionalError

V81: Regional error measure

CasualtyError

V82: Casualty error measure

Auxiliaries

V83: Auxiliaries in service of nation at war

Details

In the original data set obtained from ICPSR, variables were named V1-V84. These were renamed to make them more meaningful. V84, renamed ID was moved to the first position, but otherwise the order of variables is the same.

In many of the factor variables, 0 is used to indicate "irrelevant to quarrel". This refers to those relations that Richardson found absent or irrelevant to the particular quarrel, and did not subsequently mention.

See the original codebook at http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/cgi-bin/file?comp=none&study=5407&ds=1&file_id=652814 for details not contained here.

Source

http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/ICPSR/studies/05407

References

Lewis F. Richardson, (1960). The Statistics Of Deadly Quarrels. (Edited by Q. Wright and C. C. Lienau). Pittsburgh: Boxwood Press.

Rummel, Rudolph J. (1967), "Dimensions of Dyadic War, 1820-1952." Journal of Conflict Resolution. 11, (2), 176 - 183.

Examples

1
2
data(Quarrels)
str(Quarrels)

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