Bowley: Bowley's data on values of British and Irish trade, 1855-1899 In HistData: Data Sets from the History of Statistics and Data Visualization

Description

In one of the first statistical textbooks, Arthur Bowley (1901) used these data to illustrate an arithmetic and graphical analysis of time-series data using the total value of British and Irish exports from 1855-1899. He presented a line graph of the time-series data, supplemented by overlaid line graphs of 3-, 5- and 10-year moving averages. His goal was to show that while the initial series showed wide variability, moving averages made the series progressively smoother.

Usage

 `1` ```data(Bowley) ```

Format

A data frame with 45 observations on the following 2 variables.

`Year`

Year, from 1855-1899

`Value`

total value of British and Irish exports (millions of Pounds)

Source

Bowley, A. L. (1901). Elements of Statistics. London: P. S. King and Son, p. 151-154.

Digitized from Bowley's graph.

Examples

 ``` 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21``` ```data(Bowley) # plot the data with(Bowley,plot(Year, Value, type='b', ylab="Value of British and Irish Exports", main="Bowley's example of the method of smoothing curves")) # find moving averages-- use center alignment (requires width=ODD) require(gtools, warn.conflicts=FALSE) mav3<-running(Bowley\$Value, width=3, align="center") mav5<-running(Bowley\$Value, width=5, align="center") mav9<-running(Bowley\$Value, width=9, align="center") lines(Bowley\$Year[2:44], mav3, col='blue', lty=2) lines(Bowley\$Year[3:43], mav5, col='green3', lty=3) lines(Bowley\$Year[5:41], mav9, col='brown', lty=4) # add lowess smooth lines(lowess(Bowley), col='red', lwd=2) require(ggplot2, warn.conflicts=FALSE) qplot(Year,Value, data=Bowley)+geom_smooth() ```

Example output

```Loading required package: gtools