Bowley's data on values of British and Irish trade, 1855-1899

Share:

Description

In one of the first statistical textbooks, Arthur Bowley (1901) used these data to illustrate an arithmetic and graphical analysis of time-series data using the total value of British and Irish exports from 1855-1899. He presented a line graph of the time-series data, supplemented by overlaid line graphs of 3-, 5- and 10-year moving averages. His goal was to show that while the initial series showed wide variability, moving averages made the series progressively smoother.

Usage

1
data(Bowley)

Format

A data frame with 45 observations on the following 2 variables.

Year

Year, from 1855-1899

Value

total value of British and Irish exports (millions of Pounds)

Source

Bowley, A. L. (1901). Elements of Statistics. London: P. S. King and Son, p. 151-154.

Digitized from Bowley's graph.

Examples

 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
data(Bowley)

# plot the data 
with(Bowley,plot(Year, Value, type='b', 
	ylab="Value of British and Irish Exports",
	main="Bowley's example of the method of smoothing curves"))

# find moving averages-- use center alignment (requires width=ODD)
require(gtools, warn.conflicts=FALSE)
mav3<-running(Bowley$Value, width=3, align="center")
mav5<-running(Bowley$Value, width=5, align="center")
mav9<-running(Bowley$Value, width=9, align="center")
lines(Bowley$Year[2:44], mav3, col='blue', lty=2)
lines(Bowley$Year[3:43], mav5, col='green3', lty=3)
lines(Bowley$Year[5:41], mav9, col='brown', lty=4)

# add lowess smooth
lines(lowess(Bowley), col='red', lwd=2)

require(ggplot2, warn.conflicts=FALSE)
qplot(Year,Value, data=Bowley)+geom_smooth()

Want to suggest features or report bugs for rdrr.io? Use the GitHub issue tracker.