# R/basicNonLinearFunctions.R In nonlinearTseries: Nonlinear Time Series Analysis

#### Documented in buildTakenstimeLag

# private function
# Estimates an appropiate number of boxes for using in the box assisted
# algorithm using the time series being analyzed and the radius of the grid.
# @details
# The estimation takes the difference between the maximum and the minimum of the
# time series and divides it by the radius of the grid. If the number of boxes
# is too large (over a kMaximumNumberBoxes), the number of boxes is fixed to
# kMaximumNumberBoxes. If the number of boxes is too small (below
# kMinimumNumberBoxes), the number of boxes is fixed to kMinimumNumberBoxes.
# @param time.series the original time.series from which the surrogate data is
# generated
# @param radius width of each of the  rectangles that will be used to build the
# grid in the box assisted algorithm
# @return the number of boxes to used in the box assisted algorithm
# @author Constantino A. Garcia
kMinimumNumberBoxes = 10
kMaximumNumberBoxes = 500
number.boxes = as.integer((max(time.series) - min(time.series)) / radius)
if (number.boxes > kMaximumNumberBoxes) number.boxes = kMaximumNumberBoxes
if (number.boxes < kMinimumNumberBoxes) number.boxes = kMinimumNumberBoxes
number.boxes
}

# private function
# checks if takens' vectors v1 and v2 are neighbours
# the neighbourhood is determined using the max norm and an radius radious.
# embedding.dim is not strictly necessary but it is used to accelerate the
# computations
for (i in 1:embedding.dim) {
if (abs(v1[[i]] - v2[[i]]) >= radius) {
return(FALSE)
}
}
TRUE
}

#' Build the Takens' vectors
#' @description
#' This function builds the Takens' vectors from a given time series. The set
#' of Takens' vectors is the result of embedding the time series in a
#' m-dimensional space. That is, the \eqn{n^{th}} Takens' vector is defined as
#' \deqn{T[n]=\{time.series[n], time.series[n+ timeLag],...time.series[n+m*timeLag]\}.}
#' Taken's theorem states that we can then reconstruct an equivalent dynamical
#' system to the original one (the
#' dynamical system that generated the observed time series) by using the
#' Takens' vectors.
#' @param time.series The original time series.
#' @param embedding.dim Integer denoting the dimension in which we shall embed
#' the time.series.
#' @param time.lag Integer denoting the number of time steps that will be use
#'  to construct the  Takens' vectors.
#' @return A matrix containing the Takens' vectors (one per row). The resulting
#' matrix also contains information about the time lag and the embedding
#' dimension used (as attributes).
#' @references H. Kantz  and T. Schreiber: Nonlinear Time series Analysis
#' (Cambridge university press)
#' @author Constantino A. Garcia and Gunther Sawitzki.
#' @examples
#' \dontrun{
#'# Build the Takens vector for the Henon map using the x-coordinate time series
#' h = henon(n.sample=  3000,n.transient= 100, a = 1.4, b = 0.3,
#' start = c(0.73954883, 0.04772637), do.plot = FALSE)
#' takens = buildTakens(h$x,embedding.dim=2,time.lag=1) #' # using the x-coordinate time series we are able to reconstruct #' # the state space of the Henon map #' plot(takens)} #' @export buildTakens buildTakens = function(time.series, embedding.dim, time.lag) { N = length(time.series) #vector of increments maxjump = (embedding.dim - 1) * time.lag jumpsvect = seq(0, maxjump, time.lag) #matrix that will store the takens' vectos. One vector per row numelem = N - maxjump takens = matrix(nrow = numelem, ncol = embedding.dim) #build takens' vectors for (i in 1:numelem) { takens[i, 1:embedding.dim] = time.series[jumpsvect + i] } # #class(takens) = "takens" id = deparse(substitute(time.series)) attr(takens,"embedding.dim") = embedding.dim attr(takens,"time.lag") = time.lag attr(takens,"id") = id takens } #' Estimate an appropiate time lag for the Takens' vectors #' @description #' Given a time series (time.series), an embedding dimension (m) and a #' time lag (timeLag), the \eqn{n^{th}} #' Takens' vector is defined as #' \deqn{T[n]=\{time.series[n], time.series[n+ timeLag],...time.series[n+m*timeLag]\}.} #' This function estimates an appropiate time lag by using the autocorrelation #' function or the average mutual information . #' @details #' A basic criteria for estimating a proper time lag is based on the following #' reasoning: if the time lag used to build the Takens' vectors is too small, #' the coordinates will be too highly temporally correlated and the embedding #' will tend to cluster around the diagonal in the phase space. If the time lag #' is chosen too large, the resulting coordinates may be almost uncorrelated and #' the resulting embedding will be very complicated. Thus, the autocorrelation #' function can be used for estimating an appropiate time lag of a time series. #' However, it must be noted that the autocorrelation is a linear statistic, #' and thus it does not take into account nonlinear dynamical correlations. To #' take into account nonlinear correlations the average mutual information (AMI) #' can be used. Independently of the technique used to compute the correlation, #' the time lag can be selected in a variety of ways: #' \itemize{ #' \item Select the time lag where the autocorrelation/AMI function decays to 0 #' (\emph{first.zero} selection method). This #' method is not appropriate for the AMI function, since it only takes #' positive values. #' \item Select the time lag where the autocorrelation/AMI function decays to #' 1/e of its value at zero (\emph{first.e.decay} selection method). #' \item Select the time lag where the autocorrelation/AMI function reaches #' its first minimum (\emph{first.minimum} selection method). #' \item Select the time lag where the autocorrelation/AMI function decays to #' the value specified by the user (\emph{first.value} selection method and #' \emph{value} parameter). #' } #' @param time.series The original time series. #' @param technique The technique that we shall use to estimate the time lag #' (see the Details section). Allowed values are \emph{"acf"} and \emph{"ami"}. #' @param selection.method Method used for selecting a concrete time lag. #' Available methods are \emph{"first.zero"}, \emph{"first.e.decay"} (default), #' \emph{"first.minimum"} and \emph{"first.value"}. #' @param value Numeric value indicating the value that the autocorrelation/AMI #' function must cross in order to select the time lag. It is used only with #' the "first.value" selection method. #' @param lag.max Maximum lag at which to calculate the acf/AMI. #' @param do.plot Logical value. If TRUE (default value), a plot of the #' autocorrelation/AMI function is shown. #' @param main A title for the plot. #' @param ... Additional parameters for the \emph{acf} or the #' \emph{mutualInformation}. #' @return The estimated time lag. #' @examples #' \dontrun{ #' sx = sinaiMap(a=0.3,n.sample=5000,start=c(0.23489,0.8923),do.plot=FALSE)$x
#' timeLag(sx, technique="ami",
#'         n.partitions = 20, units = "Bits")
#' timeLag(sx, technique="acf") }
#' @note If the autocorrelation/AMI function does not cross the specifiged value,
#' an error is thrown. This may be solved by increasing the \emph{lag.max} or
#' selecting a higher value to which the autocorrelation/AMI function may decay.
#' @references H. Kantz  and T. Schreiber: Nonlinear Time series Analysis
#' (Cambridge university press)
#' @author Constantino A. Garcia
#' @export timeLag
timeLag = function(time.series, technique=c("acf","ami"),
selection.method=c("first.e.decay", "first.zero",
"first.minimum", "first.value"),
value = 1/exp(1), lag.max=NULL, do.plot=TRUE,
main = NULL, ...) {
technique = match.arg(technique)
if (is.null(main)) {
main = switch(technique,
acf = "Autocorrelation function",
ami = "Average Mutual Information (AMI)")
}
if (is.null(lag.max) && (technique == "acf")) {
lag.max = max(20, length(time.series)/2)
# if technique=="ami", mutualInformation function will handle the NULL value
}
fx = switch(technique,
ami = mutualInformation(
time.series, lag.max = lag.max,
do.plot = do.plot, main = main, ...
)$mutual.information, acf = stats::acf( time.series, lag.max = lag.max, plot = do.plot, type = "correlation", main = main, ... )$acf
)

selection.method = match.arg(selection.method)
lag = switch(match.arg(selection.method),
first.e.decay = get.position.decays(fx,fx/exp(1),technique),
first.zero = get.position.decays(fx,0,technique),
first.minimum = get.first.minimum(fx,technique),
first.value = get.position.decays(fx,value,technique) )
if (do.plot) {
if (selection.method == "first.e.decay") {
abline(h = fx / exp(1), lty = 3, col = 3, lwd = 2)
}else if (selection.method == "first.value") {
abline(h = value, lty = 3, col = 3, lwd = 2)
}
}

lag
}

# internal function. It will calculate the first time lag where
# the vector x decays to a given value
get.position.decays = function(x, value, method ) {
cross.position = which(x <= value)
# if x does not cross the value specified
# by the user, a warning is given
if (length(cross.position) == 0) {
stop(paste("The ",method," function does not cross ", value,
". Choose another \"cross\" value!\n",sep = ""))
} else{
cross.position = cross.position[]
}
# If possible: convert from positions to time lags by substracting 1
if ((cross.position) > 1) {
cross.position = cross.position - 1
}
cross.position
}

# internal function. It will calculate the first time lag where
# the x vector has a minimum
get.first.minimum = function(x,method){
derivative = diff(x)
derivative = ifelse( derivative < 0, -1, derivative)
derivative = ifelse( derivative == 0, 0, derivative)
derivative = ifelse( derivative > 0, 1, derivative)
minimums = which(diff(derivative) >= 1)
# if the autocorrelation function is monotonically decreasing, an error is
# given
if (length(minimums) == 0) {
stop(paste("The ", method, " function does not have a minimum\n",sep = ""))
}else{
#take into account that we have loss some samples after diff
first.minimum = minimums[] + 1
}
# convert from positions to time lags by substracting 1
(first.minimum - 1)
}


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nonlinearTseries documentation built on May 2, 2019, 5:47 p.m.