# Between: Operators To Check, If a Value Lies Within Or Outside a Given... In DescTools: Tools for Descriptive Statistics

 Between, Outside R Documentation

## Operators To Check, If a Value Lies Within Or Outside a Given Range

### Description

The between and outside operators are used to check, whether a vector of given values x lie within a defined range (or outside respectively). The values can be numbers, text or dates. Ordered factors are supported.

### Usage

```x %()% rng
x %(]% rng
x %[)% rng
x %[]% rng

x %][% rng
x %](% rng
x %)[% rng
x %)(% rng

x %:% rng
x %::% rng
```

### Arguments

 `x` is a variable with at least ordinal scale, usually a numeric value, but can be an ordered factor or a text as well. Texts would be treated alphabetically. `rng` a vector of two values or a matrix with 2 columns, defining the minimum and maximum of the range for x. If rng is a matrix, x or rng will be recycled.

### Details

The "BETWEEN" operators basically combine two conditional statements into one and simplify the query process.
They are merely a wrapper for: `x >= rng & x <= rng`, where the round bracket `(` means strictly greater (>) and the square bracket `[` means greater or equal (>=). Numerical values of x will be handled by C-code, which is significantly faster than two comparisons in R (especially when x is huge). .
`%][%` is the negation of `%()%`, meaning all values lying outside the given range. Elements on the limits will return `TRUE`.

Both arguments, `x` and `rng`, will be recycled to the highest dimension, which is either the length of the vector (`x`) or the number of rows of the matrix (`rng`).
See also the routines used to check, whether two ranges overlap (`Overlap`, `Interval`).

`%:%` returns all the elements of a vector between the (first found) element `rng` and `rng`. If no match is found it returns `NA`. If `rng` occurs before `rng` in the vector the elements will be returned in reverse order (which is the same behaviour as the `:` operator).
`%::%` does the same in greedy mood. It uses the first match for `from` and the last match for `to`.

### Value

A logical vector of the same length as x.

### Author(s)

Andri Signorell <andri@signorell.net> based on C-code by Kevin Ushey <kevinushey@gmail.com>

`if`, `ifelse`, `Comparison`, `Overlap`, `Interval`

### Examples

```x <- 1:9
x %[]% c(3,5)

# outside
x <- 1:9
x %][% c(3,5)

c(x,NA) %[]% c(3,5)

x %(]% c(3,5)

# no result when from > to:
x %[]% c(5,3)
x %(]% c(5,5)

# no problem:
ordered(x) %[]% c(3,5)

# not meaningful:
factor(x) %[]% c(3,5)

# characters
letters[letters %(]% c("d","h")]

data(d.pizza)
x <- levels(d.pizza\$driver)
x %[]% c("C","G")

# select diamonds with a price between 2400 and 2510
data(d.diamonds)
d.diamonds[d.diamonds\$price %[]% c(2400,2510),]

# use it with an ordered factor and select all diamonds with
#   symmetry between G (included) and X (excluded).
mean(d.diamonds[d.diamonds\$symmetry %[)% c("G","X"),"price"])

# use multiple ranges
2 %[]% cbind(1:4,2:5)

# both arguments are recycled
c(2,3) %[]% cbind(1:4,2:5)

# between operator for vector positions
set.seed(4)
(x <- sample(LETTERS, size=10, replace=TRUE))
#  "X" "K" "S" "C" "G" "L" "S" "V" "U" "Z"

# return all elements between "S" and "L"
x %:% c("S","L")
#  "S" "C" "G" "L"

x %:% c("S","A")
#  "S" "C" "G" "L" "S" "V" "U" "Z"

x %:% c("A","S")
#  "X" "K" "S"

# reverted matches return the elements in reverse order
x %:% c("G","X")
#  "G" "C" "S" "K" "X"

# no match results in NA
x %:% c("Y","B")

(x <- c("B", "A", "X", "K", "S", "K", "G", "L", "K", "V", "K", "Z"))
# lazy
x %:% c("A", "K")
# greedy
x %::% c("A", "K")
```

DescTools documentation built on Oct. 23, 2022, 1:07 a.m.