# estim-misc: Various Estimators for (Nested) Archimedean Copulas In copula: Multivariate Dependence with Copulas

 estim.misc R Documentation

## Various Estimators for (Nested) Archimedean Copulas

### Description

Various Estimators for (Nested) Archimedean Copulas, namely,

ebeta

Method-of-moments-like estimator based on (a multivariate version of) Blomqvist'sbeta.

edmle

Maximum likelihood estimator based on the diagonal of a (nested) Archimedean copula.

etau

Method-of-moments-like estimators based on (bivariate) Kendall's tau.

### Usage

```ebeta(u, cop, interval = initOpt(cop@copula@name), ...)
edmle(u, cop, interval = initOpt(cop@copula@name), warn=TRUE, ...)
etau(u, cop, method = c("tau.mean", "theta.mean"), warn=TRUE, ...)
```

### Arguments

 `u` n x d-matrix of (pseudo-)observations (each value in [0,1]) from the copula, where n denotes the sample size and d the dimension. `cop` `outer_nacopula` to be estimated (currently only Archimedean copulas are provided). `interval` bivariate vector denoting the interval where optimization takes place. The default is computed as described in Hofert et al. (2013). `method` a character string specifying the method (only for `etau`), which has to be one (or a unique abbreviation) of `"tau.mean"`method-of-moments-like estimator based on the average of pairwise sample versions of Kendall’s tau; `"theta.mean"`average of the method-of-moments-like Kendall's tau estimators. `warn` logical indicating if warnings are printed: `edmle()`for the family of `"Gumbel"` if the diagonal maximum-likelihood estimator is smaller than 1. `etau()`for the family of `"AMH"` if tau is outside [0, 1/3] and in general if at least one of the computed pairwise sample versions of Kendall's tau is negative. `...` additional arguments passed to `corKendall` (for `etau`, but see ‘Details’), to `optimize` (for `edmle`), or to `safeUroot` (for `ebeta`).

### Details

For `ebeta`, the parameter is estimated with a method-of-moments-like procedure such that the population version of the multivariate Blomqvist's beta matches its sample version.

Note that the copula diagonal is a distribution function and the maximum of all components of a random vector following the copula is distributed according to this distribution function. For `edmle`, the parameter is estimated via maximum-likelihood estimation based on the diagonal.

For `etau`, `corKendall(u, ...)` is used and if there are no `NA`s in `u`, by default (if no additional arguments are provided), `corKendall()` calls the O(n log(n)) fast `cor.fk()` from package pcaPP instead of the O(n^2) `cor(*, method="kendall")`. Conversely, when `u` has `NA`s, by default, `corKendall(u, ...)` will use `cor(u, method="kendall", use = "pairwise")` such that `etau(u, *)` will work.
Furthermore, `method="tau.mean"` means that the average of sample versions of Kendall's tau are computed first and then the parameter is determined such that the population version of Kendall's tau matches this average (if possible); the `method="theta.mean"` stands for first computing all pairwise Kendall's tau estimators and then returning the mean of these estimators.

For more details, see Hofert et al. (2013).

Note that these estimators should be used with care; see the performance results in Hofert et al. (2013). In particular, `etau` should be used with the (default) method `"tau.mean"` since `"theta.mean"` is both slower and more prone to errors.

### Value

`ebeta`

the return value of `safeUroot` (that is, typically almost the same as the value of `uniroot`) giving the Blomqvist beta estimator.

`edmle`

`list` as returned by `optimize`, including the diagonal maximum likelihood estimator.

`etau`

method-of-moments-like estimator based on Kendall's tau for the chosen method.

### References

Hofert, M., Mächler, M., and McNeil, A. J. (2013). Archimedean Copulas in High Dimensions: Estimators and Numerical Challenges Motivated by Financial Applications. Journal de la Société Française de Statistique 154(1), 25–63.

`corKendall()`.

The more sophisticated estimators `emle` (Maximum Likelihood) and `emde` (Minimum Distance). `enacopula` (wrapper for different estimators).

### Examples

```tau <- 0.25
(theta <- copGumbel@iTau(tau)) # 4/3 = 1.333..
d <- 20
(cop <- onacopulaL("Gumbel", list(theta,1:d)))

set.seed(1)
n <- 200
U <- rnacopula(n, cop)

system.time(theta.hat.beta <- ebeta(U, cop=cop))
theta.hat.beta\$root

system.time(theta.hat.dmle <- edmle(U, cop=cop))
theta.hat.dmle\$minimum

system.time(theta.hat.etau <- etau(U, cop=cop, method="tau.mean"))
theta.hat.etau

system.time(theta.hat.etau. <- etau(U, cop=cop, method="theta.mean"))
theta.hat.etau.

## etau()  in the case of missing values (NA's)
## ------                 ---------------------
##' @title add Missing Values completely at random
##' @param x  matrix or vector
##' @param prob desired probability ("fraction") of missing values (\code{\link{NA}}s).
##' @return x[] with some (100*prob percent) entries replaced by \code{\link{NA}}s.
addNAs <- function(x, prob) {
np <- length(x)
x[sample.int(np, prob*np)] <- NA
x
}

## UM[] := U[] with 5% missing values
set.seed(7); UM <- addNAs(U, p = 0.05)
mean(is.na(UM)) # 0.05
## This error if x has NA's was happening for  etau(UM, cop=cop)
## before copula version 0.999-17 (June 2017) :
try(eM <- etau(UM, cop=cop, use = "everything"))
#  --> Error ... NA/NaN/Inf in foreign function call
## The new default:
eM0 <- etau(UM, cop=cop, use = "pairwise")
eM1 <- etau(UM, cop=cop, use = "complete")
##  use = "complete" is really equivalent to dropping all obs. with with missing values:
stopifnot(all.equal(eM1, etau(na.omit(UM), cop=cop), tol = 1e-15))
## but  use = "pairwise" ---> cor(*, use = "pairwise") is much better:
rbind(etau.U = theta.hat.etau, etau.UM.pairwise = eM0, etau.UM.complete = eM1)
```

copula documentation built on June 15, 2022, 5:07 p.m.