# discdd.predict: Predicting the class of a group of individuals with... In dad: Three-Way / Multigroup Data Analysis Through Densities

 discdd.predict R Documentation

## Predicting the class of a group of individuals with discriminant analysis of probability distributions.

### Description

Assigns several groups of individuals, one group after another, to the class of groups (among K classes of groups) which achieves the minimum of the distances or divergences between the probability distribution associated to the group to assign and the K probability distributions associated to the K classes.

### Usage

discdd.predict(xf, class.var, distance =  c("l1", "l2", "chisqsym", "hellinger",
"jeffreys", "jensen", "lp"), crit = 1, misclass.ratio = FALSE, p)


### Arguments

 xf object of class folderh with two data frames or list of arrays (or tables). If it is a folderh: The first data.frame has at least two columns. One column contains the names of the T groups (all the names must be different). An other column is a factor with K levels partitionning the T groups into K classes. The second one has (q+1) columns. The first q columns are factors (otherwise, they are coerced into factors). The last column is a factor with T levels defining T groups. Each group, say t, consists of n_t individuals. If it is a list of arrays or tables, the t^{th} element (t = 1, \ldots, T) is the table of the joint distribution (absolute or relative frequencies) of the t^{th} group. These arrays have the same shape: Each array (or table) xf[[i]] has: the same dimension(s). If q = 1 (univariate), dim(xf[[i]]) is an integer. If q > 1 (multivariate), dim(xf[[i]]) is an integer vector of length q. the same dimension names dimnames(xf[[i]]) (is non NULL). These dimnames are the names of the variables. class.var string (if xf is an object of class "folderh") or data.frame with two columns (if xf is a list of arrays). If xf is of class "folder", class.var is the name of the class variable. If xf is a list of arrays or a list of tables, class.var is a data.frame with at least two columns named "group" and "class". The "group" column contains the names of the T groups (all the names must be different). The "class" column is a factor with K levels partitioning the T groups into K classes. distance The distance or dissimilarity used to compute the distance matrix between the densities. It can be: "l1" (default) the L^p distance with p = 1 "l2" the L^p distance with p = 2 "chisqsym" the symmetric Chi-squared distance "hellinger" the Hellinger metric (Matusita distance) "jeffreys" Jeffreys distance (symmetrised Kullback-Leibler divergence) "jensen" the Jensen-Shannon distance "lp" the L^p distance with p given by the argument p of the function. crit 1 or 2. In order to select the densities associated to the classes. See Details. misclass.ratio logical (default FALSE). If TRUE, the confusion matrix and misclassification ratio are computed on the groups whose prior class is known. In order to compute the misclassification ratio by the one-leave-out method, use the discdd.misclass function. p integer. Optional. When distance = "lp" (L^p distance with p>2), p is the parameter of the distance.

### Details

• If xf is an object of class "folderh" containing the data:

The T probability distributions f_t corresponding to the T groups of individuals are estimated by frequency distributions within each group.

To the class k consisting of T_k groups is associated the probability distribution g_k. The crit argument selects the estimation method of the g_k's.

• crit=1 The probability distribution g_k is estimated using the whole data of this class, that is the rows of x corresponding to the T_k groups of the class k.

The estimation of the g_k's uses the same method as the estimation of the f_t's.

• crit=2 The T_k probability distributions f_t are estimated using the corresponding data from xf. Then they are averaged to obtain an estimation of the density g_k, that is g_k = \frac{1}{T_k} \, \sum{f_t}.

• If xf is a list of arrays (or list of tables):

The t^{th} array is the joint frequency distribution of the t^{th} group. The frequencies can be absolute or relative.

To the class k consisting of T_k groups is associated the probability distribution g_k. The crit argument selects the estimation method of the g_k's.

• crit=1 g_k = \frac{1}{\sum n_t} \sum n_t f_t, where n_t is the total of xf[[t]].

Notice that when xf[[t]] contains relative frequencies, its total is 1. That is equivalent to crit=2.

• crit=2 g_k = \frac{1}{T_k} \, \sum f_t.

### Value

Returns an object of class discdd.predict, that is a list including:

 prediction  data frame with 3 columns: factor giving the group name. The column name is the same as that of the column (q+1) of x, class.known: the prior class of the group if it is available, or NA if not, class.predict: the class allocation predicted by the discriminant analysis method. If misclass.ratio = TRUE, the class allocations are computed for all groups. Otherwise (default), they are computed only for the groups whose class is unknown. distances  matrix with T rows and K columns, of the distances (d_{tk}): d_{tk} is the distance between the group t and the class k, computed with the measure given by argument, proximities  matrix of the proximities (in percents). The proximity of a group t to the class k is computed as so: (1/d_{tk})/\sum_{l=1}^{l=K}(1/d_{tl}). confusion.mat  the confusion matrix (if misclass.ratio = TRUE) misclassed  the misclassification ratio (if misclass.ratio = TRUE)

### Author(s)

Rachid Boumaza, Pierre Santagostini, Smail Yousfi, Gilles Hunault, Sabine Demotes-Mainard

### References

Rudrauf, J.M., Boumaza, R. (2001). Contribution à l'étude de l'architecture médiévale: les caractéristiques des pierres à bossage des châteaux forts alsaciens, Centre de Recherches Archéologiques médiévales de Saverne, 5, 5-38.

### Examples

data(castles.dated)
data(castles.nondated)
stones <- rbind(castles.dated$stones, castles.nondated$stones)
periods <- rbind(castles.dated$periods, castles.nondated$periods)
stones$height <- cut(stones$height, breaks = c(19, 27, 40, 71), include.lowest = TRUE)
stones$width <- cut(stones$width, breaks = c(24, 45, 62, 144), include.lowest = TRUE)
stones$edging <- cut(stones$edging, breaks = c(0, 3, 4, 8), include.lowest = TRUE)
stones$boss <- cut(stones$boss, breaks = c(0, 6, 9, 20), include.lowest = TRUE )

castlesfh <- folderh(periods, "castle", stones)

# Default: dist="l1", crit=1
discdd.predict(castlesfh, "period")

# With the calculation of the confusion matrix and misclassification ratio
discdd.predict(castlesfh, "period", misclass.ratio = TRUE)

# Hellinger distance
discdd.predict(castlesfh, "period", distance = "hellinger")

# crit=2
discdd.predict(castlesfh, "period", crit = 2)


dad documentation built on Aug. 30, 2023, 5:06 p.m.