# fdiscd.predict: Predicting the class of a group of individuals with... In dad: Three-Way / Multigroup Data Analysis Through Densities

 fdiscd.predict R Documentation

## Predicting the class of a group of individuals with discriminant analysis of probability densities.

### Description

Assigns several groups of individuals, one group after another, to the class of groups (among K classes of groups) which achieves the minimum of the distances or divergences between the density function associated to the group to assign and the K density functions associated to the K classes.

### Usage

fdiscd.predict(xf, class.var, gaussiand = TRUE,
distance =  c("jeffreys", "hellinger", "wasserstein", "l2", "l2norm"),
crit = 1, windowh = NULL, misclass.ratio = FALSE)


### Arguments

 xf object of class folderh with two data frames: The first one has at least two columns. One column contains the names of the T groups (all the names must be different). An other column is a factor with K levels partitionning the T groups into K classes.. The second one has (p+1) columns. The first p columns are numeric (otherwise, there is an error). The last column is a factor with T levels defining T groups. Each group, say t, consists of n_t individuals. Notice that for the versions earlier than 2.0, fdiscd.predict applied to two data frames. class.var string. The name of the class variable. distance The distance or divergence used to compute the distance matrix between the densities. It can be: "jeffreys" (default) Jeffreys measure (symmetrised Kullback-Leibler divergence), "hellinger" the Hellinger (Matusita) distance, "wasserstein" the Wasserstein distance, "l2" the L^2 distance, "l2norm" the densities are normed and the L^2 distance between these normed densities is used; If gaussiand = FALSE, the densities are estimated by the Gaussian kernel method and the distance is "l2" or "l2norm". crit 1, 2 or 3. In order to select the densities associated to the classes. See Details. If distance is "hellinger", "jeffreys" or "wasserstein", crit is necessarily 1 (see Details). gaussiand logical. If TRUE (default), the probability densities are supposed Gaussian. If FALSE, densities are estimated using the Gaussian kernel method. If distance is "hellinger", "jeffreys" or "wasserstein", gaussiand is necessarily TRUE. windowh strictly positive number. If windowh = NULL (default), the bandwidths are computed using the bandwidth.parameter function. Omitted when distance is "hellinger", "jeffreys" or "wasserstein" (see Details). misclass.ratio logical (default FALSE). If TRUE, the confusion matrix and misclassification ratio are computed on the groups whose prior class is known. In order to compute the misclassification ratio by the one-leave-out method, use the fdiscd.misclass function.

### Details

To the group t is associated the density denoted f_t. To the class k consisting of T_k groups is associated the density denoted g_k. The crit argument selects the estimation method of the K densities g_k.

1. The density g_k is estimated using the whole data of this class, that is the rows of x corresponding to the T_k groups of the class k.

2. The T_k densities f_t are estimated using the corresponding data from x. Then they are averaged to obtain an estimation of the density g_k, that is g_k = (1/T_k)\sum{f_t}.

3. Each previous density f_t is weighted by n_t (the number of rows of x corresponding to f_t). Then they are averaged, that is g_k = (1/\sum n_t) \sum n_t f_t.

The last two methods are available only for the L^2-distance. If the divergences between densities are computed using the Hellinger or Wasserstein distance or Jeffreys measure, only the first of these methods is available.

### Value

Returns an object of class fdiscd.predict, that is a list including:

 prediction  data frame with 3 columns: factor giving the group name. The column name is the same as that of the column (p+1) of x, class.known: the prior class of the group if it is available, or NA if not, class.predict: the class allocation predicted by the discriminant analysis method. If misclass.ratio = TRUE, the class allocations are computed for all groups. Otherwise (default), they are computed only for the groups whose class is unknown. distances  matrix with T rows and K columns, of the distances (d_{tk}): d_{tk} is the distance between the group t and the class k, computed with the measure given by argument distance (L^2-distance, Hellinger distance or jeffreys measure), proximities  matrix of the proximities (in percents). The proximity of a group t to the class k is computed as so: (1/d_{tk})/\sum_{l=1}^{l=K}(1/d_{tl}). confusion.mat  the confusion matrix (if misclass.ratio = TRUE) misclassed  the misclassification ratio (if misclass.ratio = TRUE)

### Author(s)

Rachid Boumaza, Pierre Santagostini, Smail Yousfi, Gilles Hunault, Sabine Demotes-Mainard

### References

Boumaza, R. (2004). Discriminant analysis with independently repeated multivariate measurements: an L^2 approach. Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, 47, 823-843.

Rudrauf, J.M., Boumaza, R. (2001). Contribution à l'étude de l'architecture médiévale: les caractéristiques des pierres à bossage des châteaux forts alsaciens. Centre de Recherches Archéologiques Médiévales de Saverne, 5, 5-38.

### Examples

data(castles.dated)
data(castles.nondated)
castles.stones <- rbind(castles.dated$stones, castles.nondated$stones)
castles.periods <- rbind(castles.dated$periods, castles.nondated$periods)
castlesfh <- folderh(castles.periods, "castle", castles.stones)

# With the L^2-distance

# - crit=1
resultl2.1 <- fdiscd.predict(castlesfh, "period", distance="l2", crit=1)
print(resultl2.1)

# - crit=2
## Not run:
resultl2.2 <- fdiscd.predict(castlesfh, "period", distance="l2", crit=2)
print(resultl2.2)

## End(Not run)

# - crit=3
resultl2.3 <- fdiscd.predict(castlesfh, "period", distance="l2", crit=3)
print(resultl2.3)

# With the Hellinger distance
resulthelling <- fdiscd.predict(castlesfh, "period", distance="hellinger")
print(resulthelling)

# With jeffreys measure
resultjeff <- fdiscd.predict(castlesfh, "period", distance="jeffreys")
print(resultjeff)


dad documentation built on Aug. 30, 2023, 5:06 p.m.