Description Usage Arguments Details Value References Examples
Setup a GAPerm
object that can be used to perform
a permutationbased optimization.
1 2 3 4 
FUN 
The fitness function, which should take a vector as argument and return a numeric value (See details). 
n 
The number of elements to permutate. 
popSize 
The population size. 
mutRate 
The mutation rate, a numeric value between 0 and 1. When implementing a custom mutation function, this value should be one of the parameters (see details and examples). 
cxRate 
The crossover rate, a numeric value between 0 and 1. This parameter specifies the probability of two individuals effectively exchange DNA during crossover. In case the individuals didn't crossover, the offspring is a exact copy of the parents. When implementing a custom crossover function, this value should be one of the arguments (see details and examples). 
eliteRate 
A numeric value between 0 and 1. The

selection 
The selection operator to be used. You can also implement a custom selection function (see details and examples). 
crossover 
The crossover operator to be used. You can also implement a custom crossover function (see details and examples). 
mutation 
The mutation operator to be used. You can also implement a custom mutation function (see details and examples). 
This is the function used to configure and finetune a
permutationbased optimization. The basic usage requires
only the FUN
parameter (function to be maximized),
together with n
(the number of elements to
permutate), all the other parameters have sensible
defaults.
The parameters selection
, crossover
and
mutation
can also take a custom function as
argument, which needs to be in the appropriate format
(see the examples). The text below explains the default
behaviour for these parameters, which will be usefull if
you want to override one or more genetic operators.
selection
: The fitness
option performs a fitnessproportionate selection,
so that the fittest individuals will have greater chances
of being selected. If you choose this option, the value
returned by FUN
(the fitness value) should be
nonnegative. The uniform
option will
randomly sample the individuals to mate, regardless of
their fitness value. See the examples if you want to
implement a custom selection function.
crossover
: The pmx
option
will perform a 'partially mapped crossover' of the
individuals DNA. See the references and examples if you
need to implement a custom crossover function. The trick
with permutation crossover is to make sure that the
resulting children are valid permutations.
mutation
: The swap
option
will perform a simple swap between specific gene
positions, according to the mutation rate specified.
An object of class GAPerm
, which you can pass as
an argument to plot
or summary
. This object
is a list with the following accessor functions:
bestFit :  Returns a vector with the best fitness achieved in each generation. 
meanFit :  Returns a vector with the mean fitness achieved in each generation. 
bestIndividual :  Returns a vector with the best solution found. 
evolve(h) :  This is the function you call to evolve your population. 
You also need to specify the number of generations to evolve.  
population :  Returns the current population matrix. 
Even, S. Algorithmic Combinatorics. The Macmillan Company, NY 1973.
Michalewicz, Zbigniew. Genetic Algorithms + Data Structures = Evolution Programs  3rd ed.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144  # TSP with 10 cities around a circular pattern
n = 10
R = 10
angs = seq(0, 2*pi, length = n)
xp = R * cos(angs) + rnorm(n)
yp = R * sin(angs) + rnorm(n)
xp = c(xp, xp[1])
yp = c(yp, yp[1])
base.M = matrix(c(xp, yp), ncol = 2)
dist.FUN = function(p)
{
p = c(p, p[1])
M.diff = diff(base.M[p, ])
dists = apply(M.diff, 1, function(x)x[1]^2 + x[2]^2)
1/sum(dists)
}
ga1 = GAPerm(dist.FUN, n, popSize = 100, mutRate = 0.3)
ga1$evolve(100)
plot(xp, yp, type = 'n', xlab = '', ylab = '')
res = ga1$bestIndividual()
res = c(res, res[1])
i = 1:n
xi = base.M[res[i], 1]
yi = base.M[res[i], 2]
xf = base.M[res[i + 1], 1]
yf = base.M[res[i + 1], 2]
arrows(xi, yi, xf, yf, col = 'red', angle = 10)
text(base.M[res, 1], base.M[res, 2], 1:n, cex = 0.9, col = 'gray20')
# Euro tour problem (See ?optim)
eurodistmat = as.matrix(eurodist)
# This function will be used for the remaining examples
distance = function(sq)
{
sq = c(sq, sq[1])
sq2 < embed(sq, 2)
1/sum(eurodistmat[cbind(sq2[,2], sq2[,1])])
}
loc = cmdscale(eurodist, add = TRUE)$points
x = loc[, 1]
y = loc[, 2]
n = nrow(eurodistmat)
set.seed(1)
ga2 = GAPerm(distance, n, popSize = 100, mutRate = 0.3)
ga2$evolve(200)
best = ga2$bestIndividual()
best = c(best, best[1])
best.dist = 1/max(ga2$bestFit())
res = loc[best, ]
i = 1:n
plot(x, y, type = 'n', axes = FALSE, ylab = '', xlab = '')
title ('Euro tour: TSP with 21 cities')
mtext(paste('Best distance found:', best.dist))
arrows(res[i, 1], res[i, 2], res[i + 1, 1], res[i + 1, 2], col = 'red', angle = 10)
text(x, y, labels(eurodist), cex = 0.8, col = 'gray20')
# Euro tour with custom selection
selec.FUN = function(population, fitnessVec, nLeft)
{
# Chance of being select proportional to fitness sqrt
idxs = sample(nrow(population), nLeft, prob = sqrt(fitnessVec))
# Just return the nLeft selected row indexes
idxs
}
ga3 = GAPerm(distance, n, mutRate = 0.3, selection = selec.FUN)
ga3$evolve(200)
best.dist = 1/max(ga3$bestFit())
plot(ga3, main = 'Euro tour: TSP with 21 cities')
mtext(paste('Best distance found:', best.dist))
# Euro tour with custom crossover
# This is the default pmx implementation
crossover.FUN = function(vec1, vec2, prob)
{
# prob is the crossover rate
if (runif(1) > prob)
return(matrix(c(vec1, vec2), nrow = 2, byrow = TRUE))
idxs = sample(1:length(vec1), 2)
vec1.cp = vec1
for (i in idxs)
{
other.val = vec2[i]
vec.idx = which(vec1 == other.val)
vec1[vec.idx] = vec1[i]
vec1[i] = other.val
}
for (i in idxs)
{
other.val = vec1.cp[i]
vec.idx = which(vec2 == other.val)
vec2[vec.idx] = vec2[i]
vec2[i] = other.val
}
matrix(c(vec1, vec2), nrow = 2, byrow = TRUE)
}
ga4 = GAPerm(distance, n, mutRate = 0.3, crossover = crossover.FUN)
ga4$evolve(200)
best.dist = 1/max(ga4$bestFit())
plot(ga4, main = 'Euro tour: TSP with 21 cities')
mtext(paste('Best distance found:', best.dist))
# Euro tour with custom mutation
# This is the default implementation
mutation.FUN = function(M, mutations)
{
# M  The population matrix to apply mutation
# mutations  The number of mutations you supposed to apply, according to mutRate
rows = sample(1:nrow(M), mutations, replace = FALSE)
cols = t(replicate(mutations, sample(1:n, 2)))
col1 = cols[, 1]
col2 = cols[, 2]
extM1 = matrix(c(rows, col1), ncol = 2)
extM2 = matrix(c(rows, col2), ncol = 2)
tempCol = M[extM1]
M[extM1] = M[extM2]
M[extM2] = tempCol
M
}
ga5 = GAPerm(distance, n, mutRate = 0.3, mutation = mutation.FUN)
ga5$evolve(200)
best.dist = 1/max(ga5$bestFit())
plot(ga5, main = 'Euro tour: TSP with 21 cities')
mtext(paste('Best distance found:', best.dist))

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