R/utils.R

Defines functions custom_stop_bullet prep_path prep_read translate_ij_description calculate_n_slices prep_frames tif_tags_reference pretty_msg stack_to_linescan linescan_to_stack ebimg_install_msg is_EBImage can_be_intish frames_count count_frames colormap_or_ij_channels fix_res_unit lowest_upper_bound compute_desired_plane extract_desired_plane dims enlist_planes enlist_img

Documented in count_frames frames_count linescan_to_stack stack_to_linescan tif_tags_reference

#' Prep an [ijtiff_img]-style array for `write_tif_C()`.
#'
#' It has to be a list of 3-dimensional arrays. Heavy lifting done in C++ by
#' `enlist_img_cpp()`.
#'
#' @param img An [ijtiff_img]-style array.
#'
#' @return A list.
#'
#' @noRd
enlist_img <- function(img) {
  checkmate::assert_array(img, d = 4, mode = "double")
  .Call("enlist_img_C", img, PACKAGE = "ijtiff")
}

#' Split the planes of a 3D array into a list.
#'
#' Planes are along the 3rd dimension.
#'
#' @param arr3d A 3D array.
#'
#' @return A list of 2D arrays.
#'
#' @noRd
enlist_planes <- function(arr3d) {
  checkmate::assert_array(arr3d, d = 3, mode = "double")
  .Call("enlist_planes_C", arr3d, PACKAGE = "ijtiff")
}

#' Calculate [dim()] on every element in a list.
#'
#' @param lst A list.
#'
#' @return A list.
#'
#' @noRd
dims <- function(lst) {
  checkmate::assert_list(lst)
  .Call("dims_C", lst, PACKAGE = "ijtiff")
}

#' Extract the appropriate plane.
#'
#' Sometimes the TIFF reading is weird and you get more planes than you wanted,
#' but one of them is clearly the right one. This function will pluck that out
#' for you.
#'
#' @param arr An array. Mostly 3D. If 2D, input is returned.
#'
#' @return A 2D array.
#'
#' @noRd
extract_desired_plane <- function(arr) {
  checkmate::assert_array(arr, min.d = 2, max.d = 3)
  d <- dim(arr)
  if (length(d) == 3) {
    nonzero_planes <- !purrr::map_lgl(
      seq_len(d[3]),
      ~ isTRUE(unique(as.vector(arr[, , .])) == 0)
    )
    if (sum(nonzero_planes) == 1) {
      arr <- arr[, , nonzero_planes]
    } else if (dplyr::n_distinct(enlist_planes(arr)) == 1) {
      arr <- arr[, , 1]
    } else {
      n_nonzero_unique_planes <- arr %>%
        enlist_planes() %>%
        unique() %>%
        length()
      custom_stop(
        "Cannot extract the desired plane.",
        "
                   There are {n_nonzero_unique_planes} unique nonzero planes,
                   so it is impossible to decipher which is the correct one
                   to extract.
                  "
      )
    }
  }
  arr
}

#' Compute the desired plane.
#'
#' This function wraps [extract_desired_plane()]. Sometimes the TIFF reading is
#' weird and you get more planes than you wanted, but one of them is clearly the
#' right one. This function will pluck that out for you. If the images have a
#' color palette, that conversion takes place here too.
#'
#' @inheritParams extract_desired_plane
#'
#' @return A 2D array.
#'
#' @noRd
compute_desired_plane <- function(arr) {
  atts <- attributes(arr)
  att_names <- names(atts)
  if (all(c("color_space", "color_map") %in% att_names) &&
    isTRUE(atts$color_space == "palette")) {
    return(match_pillar_to_row_3(arr, attr(arr, "color_map", exact = TRUE)))
  }
  extract_desired_plane(arr)
}

#' Find the lowest number that is bigger than all the elements in `x`.
#'
#' @param x A numeric vector.
#' @param possible_upper_bounds A numeric vector.
#' @param na_rm Ignore `NA`s?
#'
#' @return A number.
#'
#' @noRd
lowest_upper_bound <- function(x, possible_upper_bounds, na_rm = TRUE) {
  checkmate::assert_numeric(x, min.len = 1)
  checkmate::assert_numeric(possible_upper_bounds, min.len = 1)
  checkmate::assert_flag(na_rm)
  if (anyNA(x) && rlang::is_false(na_rm)) {
    return(NA_real_)
  }
  mx <- suppressWarnings(max(as.vector(x), na.rm = na_rm))
  if (is.na(mx) || is.infinite(mx)) {
    return(NA_real_)
  }
  possible_upper_bounds <- sort(possible_upper_bounds)
  for (pub in possible_upper_bounds) {
    if (pub >= mx) {
      return(pub)
    }
  }
  return(NA_real_)
}

#' Fix the resolution unit if necessary.
#'
#' The resolution unit is another thing that ImageJ sometimes decides to record
#' in `TIFFTAG_DESCRIPTION` so needs to be allowed for.
#'
#' @param x An [ijtiff_img] which optionally has a `description` attribute with
#'   the contents of `TIFFTAG_DESCRIPTION`.
#'
#' @return An [ijtiff_img].
#'
#' @noRd
fix_res_unit <- function(x) {
  if ("description" %in% names(attributes(x)) &&
    startsWith(attr(x, "description"), "ImageJ") &&
    (is.null(attr(x, "resolution_unit")) ||
      attr(x, "resolution_unit") == "none") &&
    stringr::str_detect(attr(x, "description"), "\\sunit=.+\\s")) {
    attr(x, "resolution_unit") <- stringr::str_match(
      attr(x, "description"), "\\sunit=([^\\s]+)"
    )[1, 2]
  }
  x
}

#' Does the object read by `read_tif_C()` have a colormap or channels specified
#' in the weird ImageJ way?
#'
#' @param img_lst A list. The output of `read_tif_C()`.
#' @param prep The output of a call to `prep_read()`.
#' @param d The dimension of the images in `img_lst`.
#'
#' @return A flag.
#'
#' @noRd
colormap_or_ij_channels <- function(img_lst, prep, d) {
  weird_ij_channels <- (isTRUE(length(img_lst) == prep$n_imgs) && prep$ij_n_ch)
  colormap <- (!prep$ij_n_ch && prep$n_ch == 1) && (length(d) > 2)
  colormap || weird_ij_channels
}

#' Count the number of frames in a TIFF file.
#'
#' TIFF files can hold many frames. Often this is sensible, e.g. each frame
#' could be a time-point in a video or a slice of a z-stack.
#'
#' For those familiar with TIFF files, this function counts the number of
#' directories in a TIFF file. There is an adjustment made for some
#' ImageJ-written TIFF files.
#'
#' @inheritParams read_tif
#'
#' @return A number, the number of frames in the TIFF file. This has an
#'   attribute `n_dirs` which holds the true number of directories in the TIFF
#'   file, making no allowance for the way ImageJ may write TIFF files.
#'
#' @examples
#' count_frames(system.file("img", "Rlogo.tif", package = "ijtiff"))
#' @export
count_frames <- function(path) {
  path %<>% prep_path()
  withr::local_dir(attr(path, "path_dir"))
  prep <- prep_read(path,
    frames = "all",
    tags1 = read_tags(path, frames = 1)[[1]]
  )
  out <- ifelse(is.na(prep$n_slices), prep$n_dirs, prep$n_slices)
  attr(out, "n_dirs") <- prep$n_dirs
  out
}

#' @rdname count_frames
#' @export
frames_count <- function(path) {
  count_frames(path = path)
}

#' Is a numeric vector equal to its floor.
#'
#' This is different to [checkmate::check_integerish()] as it permits things
#' outside the 32-bit integer range.
#'
#' @param x A numeric vector.
#'
#' @return A flag.
#'
#' @noRd
can_be_intish <- function(x) isTRUE(all(x == floor(x)))

#' Check if an object is an [EBImage::Image].
#'
#' @param x An object.
#'
#' @return A flag.
#'
#' @noRd
is_EBImage <- function(x) {
  suppressWarnings(
    isTRUE("Image" %in% class(x)) &&
      isTRUE(attr(class(x), "package") == "EBImage")
  )
}

#' A message to tell the user to install EBImage.
#'
#' @return A string.
#'
#' @noRd
ebimg_install_msg <- function() {
  paste0(
    "  * To install `EBImage`:", "\n",
    "    - Install `BiocManager` with `install.packages(\"BiocManager\")`.\n",
    "    - Then run `BiocManager::install(\"EBImage\")`."
  )
}

#' Rejig linescan images.
#'
#' `ijtiff` has the fourth dimension of an [ijtiff_img] as its time dimension.
#' However, some linescan images (images where a single line of pixels is
#' acquired over and over) have the time dimension as the y dimension, (to avoid
#' the need for an image stack). These functions allow one to convert this type
#' of image into a conventional [ijtiff_img] (with time in the fourth dimension)
#' and to convert back.
#'
#' @param linescan_img A 4-dimensional array in which the time axis is the first
#'   axis. Dimension 4 must be 1 i.e. `dim(linescan_img)[4] == 1`.
#' @param img A conventional [ijtiff_img], to be turned into a linescan image.
#'   Dimension 1 must be 1 i.e. `dim(img)[1] == 1`.
#'
#' @return The converted image, an object of class [ijtiff_img].
#'
#' @examples
#' linescan <- ijtiff_img(array(rep(1:4, each = 4), dim = c(4, 4, 1, 1)))
#' print(linescan)
#' stack <- linescan_to_stack(linescan)
#' print(stack)
#' linescan <- stack_to_linescan(stack)
#' print(linescan)
#' @name linescan-conversion
NULL

#' @rdname linescan-conversion
#' @export
linescan_to_stack <- function(linescan_img) {
  linescan_img %<>% ijtiff_img()
  if (dim(linescan_img)[4] != 1) {
    custom_stop(
      "
       The fourth dimension of `linescan_img` should be equal to 1
       (or else it's not a linescan image).
      ",
      "Yours has dim(linescan_img)[4] == {dim(linescan_img)[4]}."
    )
  }
  linescan_img %>%
    aperm(c(4, 2, 3, 1)) %>%
    ijtiff_img()
}

#' @rdname linescan-conversion
#' @export
stack_to_linescan <- function(img) {
  img %<>% ijtiff_img()
  if (dim(img)[1] != 1) {
    custom_stop(
      "
       The first dimension of `img` should be equal to 1
       (or else it's not a stack that can be converted to a linescan).
      ",
      "Yours has dim(img)[1] == {dim(img)[1]}."
    )
  }
  img %>%
    aperm(c(4, 2, 3, 1)) %>%
    ijtiff_img()
}

#' Wrap messages to make them prettier.
#'
#' Format messages with line breaks so that single words don't appear on
#' multiple lines.
#'
#' @param ... Bits of the message to be pasted together.
#'
#' @noRd
pretty_msg <- function(...) {
  dots <- unlist(list(...))
  checkmate::assert_character(dots)
  stringr::str_c(dots, collapse = "") %>%
    strwrap(width = 63) %>%
    stringr::str_c(collapse = "\n") %>%
    message()
}

#' TIFF tag reference.
#'
#' A dataset containing the information on all known baseline and extended TIFF
#' tags.
#'
#' A data frame with 96 rows and 10 variables: \describe{
#' \item{code_dec}{decimal numeric code of the TIFF tag}
#' \item{code_hex}{hexadecimal numeric code of the TIFF tag} \item{name}{the
#' name of the TIFF tag} \item{short_description}{a short description of the
#' TIFF tag} \item{tag_type}{the type of TIFF tag: either "baseline" or
#' "extended"} \item{url}{the URL of the TIFF tag at
#' \url{https://www.awaresystems.be}} \item{libtiff_name}{the TIFF tag name in
#' the libtiff C library} \item{c_type}{the C type of the TIFF tag data in
#' libtiff} \item{count}{the number of elements in the TIFF tag data}
#' \item{default}{the default value of the data held in the TIFF tag} }
#' @source \url{https://www.awaresystems.be}
#'
#' @examples
#' tif_tags_reference()
#' @export
tif_tags_reference <- function() {
  "TIFF_tags.csv" %>%
    system.file("extdata", ., package = "ijtiff") %>%
    readr::read_csv(., col_types = readr::cols())
}

#' Check that the `frames` argument has been passed correctly.
#'
#' @param frames An integerish vector. The requested frames.
#'
#' @return `TRUE` invisibly if everything is OK. The function errors otherwise.
#'
#' @noRd
prep_frames <- function(frames) {
  checkmate::assert(
    checkmate::check_string(frames),
    checkmate::check_integerish(frames, lower = 1)
  )
  if (is.character(frames)) {
    frames %<>% tolower()
    if (!startsWith("all", frames)) {
      custom_stop(
        "If `frames` is a string, it must be 'all'.",
        "You have `frames = '{frames}'`."
      )
    }
    frames <- "all"
  }
  frames
}

#' Calculate the number of slices from an ImageJ `TIFFTAG_DESCRIPTION`.
#'
#' @param ij_description A string.
#'
#' @return A number.
#'
#' @noRd
calculate_n_slices <- function(ij_description) {
  n_slices <- strex::str_first_number_after_first(ij_description, "slices=")
  if (stringr::str_detect(ij_description, "frames=")) {
    n_frames <- strex::str_first_number_after_first(
      ij_description,
      "frames="
    )
    if (!is.na(n_slices) && rlang::is_false(n_frames == n_slices)) {
      if (isTRUE(n_slices == 1) || isTRUE(n_frames == 1)) {
        n_slices <- n_frames <- max(n_slices, n_frames)
      } else {
        custom_stop(
          "
            The ImageJ-written image you're trying to read says it has
            {n_frames} frames AND {n_slices} slices.
            ", "
            To be read by the `ijtiff` package, the number of slices OR the
            number of frames should be specified in the TIFFTAG_DESCRIPTION
            and they're interpreted as the same thing. It does not make sense
            for them to be different numbers.
            "
        )
      }
    }
    n_slices <- n_frames
  }
  n_slices
}

#' Extract info from an ImageJ-style `TIFFTAG_DESCRIPTION`.
#'
#' @inheritParams prep_read
#'
#' @return A named list with elements `n_imgs`, `n_slices`, `ij_n_ch`, `n_ch`.
#'
#' @noRd
translate_ij_description <- function(tags1) {
  n_imgs <- NA_integer_
  n_slices <- NA_integer_
  ij_n_ch <- FALSE
  n_ch <- tags1$samples_per_pixel %||% 1
  if ("description" %in% names(tags1) &&
    startsWith(tags1$description, "ImageJ")) {
    ij_description <- tags1$description
    if (stringr::str_detect(ij_description, "channels=")) {
      n_ch <- strex::str_first_number_after_first(
        ij_description,
        "channels="
      )
      ij_n_ch <- TRUE
    }
    n_imgs <- strex::str_first_number_after_first(ij_description, "images=")
    n_slices <- calculate_n_slices(ij_description)
    if ((!is.na(n_slices) && !is.na(n_imgs)) &&
      ij_n_ch &&
      n_imgs != n_ch * n_slices) {
      custom_stop(
        "
        The ImageJ-written image you're trying to read says in its
        TIFFTAG_DESCRIPTION that it has {n_imgs} images of
        {n_slices} slices of {n_ch} channels. However, with {n_slices}
        slices of {n_ch} channels, one would expect there to be
        {n_slices} x {n_ch} = {n_ch * n_slices} images.
        ", "
        This discrepancy means that the `ijtiff` package can't read your
        image correctly.
        ", "
        One possible source of this kind of error is that your image
        is temporal and volumetric. `ijtiff` can handle either
        time-based or volumetric stacks, but not both."
      )
    }
  }
  list(n_imgs = n_imgs, n_slices = n_slices, ij_n_ch = ij_n_ch, n_ch = n_ch)
}

#' Get information necessary for reading the image.
#'
#' While doing so, perform a check to see if the requested frames exist.
#'
#' @param path The path to the TIFF file.
#' @param frames An integerish vector. The requested frames.
#' @param tags1 The tags from the first image (directory) in the TIFF file. The
#'   first element of an output from [read_tags()].
#' @param tags Are we prepping the read of just tags (`TRUE`) or an image
#'   (`FALSE`).
#'
#' @return A list with seven elements.
#' * `frames` is the adjusted frame numbers (allowing for _ImageJ_  stuff),
#'  unique and sorted.
#' * `back_map` is a mapping from `frames` back to its non-unique, unsorted
#'  original; that would be `frames[back_map]`.
#'  * `n_ch` is the number of channels.
#'  * `n_dirs` is the number of directories in the TIFF image.
#'  * `n_slices` is the number of slices in the TIFF file. For most, this is the
#'   same as `n_dirs` but for ImageJ-written images it can be different.
#'  * `n_imgs` is the number of images according to the ImageJ
#'   `TIFFTAG_DESCRIPTION`. If not specified, it's `NA`.
#'  * `ij_n_ch` is `TRUE` if the number of channels was specified in the ImageJ
#'   `TIFFTAG_DESCRIPTION`, otherwise `FALSE`.
#'
#' @noRd
prep_read <- function(path, frames, tags1, tags = FALSE) {
  frames %<>% prep_frames()
  frames_max <- max(frames)
  c(n_imgs, n_slices, ij_n_ch, n_ch) %<-% translate_ij_description(
    tags1
  )[c("n_imgs", "n_slices", "ij_n_ch", "n_ch")]
  path %<>% prep_path()
  withr::local_dir(attr(path, "path_dir"))
  n_dirs <- .Call("count_directories_C", path, PACKAGE = "ijtiff")
  if (!is.na(n_slices)) {
    if (frames[[1]] == "all") {
      frames <- seq_len(n_slices)
      frames_max <- n_slices
    }
    if (frames_max > n_slices) {
      custom_stop("
      You have requested frame number {frames_max} but there
      are only {n_slices} frames in total.
                ")
    }
    if (ij_n_ch) {
      if (n_dirs != n_slices) {
        if (!is.na(n_imgs) && n_dirs != n_imgs) {
          custom_stop(
            "
          If TIFFTAG_DESCRIPTION specifies the number of images, this must be
          equal to the number of directories in the TIFF file.
          ",
            "Your TIFF file has {n_dirs} directories.",
            "Its TIFFTAG_DESCRIPTION indicates that it holds {n_imgs} images."
          )
        }
        if (tags) {
          frames <- frames * n_ch - (n_ch - 1)
        } else {
          frames <- purrr::map(
            frames * n_ch,
            ~ .x - rev((seq_len(n_ch) - 1))
          ) %>%
            unlist()
        }
      }
    }
  } else {
    if (frames[[1]] == "all") {
      frames <- seq_len(n_dirs)
      frames_max <- n_dirs
    }
    if (frames_max > n_dirs) {
      custom_stop("
      You have requested frame number {frames_max} but there
      are only {n_dirs} frames in total.
                ")
    }
  }
  good_frames <- sort(unique(frames))
  back_map <- match(frames, good_frames)
  list(
    frames = as.integer(good_frames),
    back_map = back_map,
    n_ch = n_ch,
    n_dirs = n_dirs,
    n_slices = ifelse(is.na(n_slices), n_dirs, n_slices),
    n_imgs = n_imgs,
    ij_n_ch = ij_n_ch
  )
}

#' Prepare the path to a TIFF file for a function that will read from that file.
#'
#' The [fs::path_file()] is returned. The calling function is expected to call
#' `withr::local_dir(fs::path_dir())`.
#'
#' @param path A string. The path to a TIFF file.
#'
#' @return A string. The [fs::path_file()]. This has an attribute `path_dir`
#'   with the path to be passed to [withr::local_dir()].
#'
#' @noRd
prep_path <- function(path) {
  checkmate::assert_string(path)
  path %<>% stringr::str_replace_all(stringr::coll("\\"), "/") # windows safe
  checkmate::assert_file_exists(path)
  structure(fs::path_file(path), path_dir = fs::path_dir(path))
}


#' Construct the bullet point bits for `custom_stop()`.
#'
#' @param string The message for the bullet point.
#'
#' @return A string with the bullet-pointed message nicely formatted for the
#'   console.
#'
#' @noRd
custom_stop_bullet <- function(string) {
  checkmate::assert_string(string)
  string %>%
    stringr::str_replace_all("\\s+", " ") %>%
    paste("    *", .)
}

#' Nicely formatted error message.
#'
#' Format an error message with bullet-pointed sub-messages with nice
#' line-breaks.
#'
#' Arguments should be entered as `glue`-style strings.
#'
#' @param main_message The main error message.
#' @param ... Bullet-pointed sub-messages.
#'
#' @noRd
custom_stop <- function(main_message, ..., .envir = parent.frame()) {
  checkmate::assert_string(main_message)
  main_message %<>%
    stringr::str_replace_all("\\s+", " ") %>%
    stringr::str_glue(.envir = .envir)
  out <- main_message
  dots <- unlist(list(...))
  if (length(dots)) {
    if (!is.character(dots)) {
      stop("\nThe arguments in ... must all be of character type.")
    }
    dots %<>%
      purrr::map_chr(stringr::str_glue, .envir = .envir) %>%
      purrr::map_chr(custom_stop_bullet)
    out %<>% {
      stringr::str_c(c(., dots), collapse = "\n")
    }
  }
  rlang::abort(stringr::str_c(out, collapse = "\n"))
}

#' Check if EBImage is installed.
#'
#' Error if not.
#'
#' @return `TRUE` (invisibly) if installed.
#'
#' @noRd
ebimg_check <- function() {
  if (!rlang::is_installed("EBImage")) {
    stop(paste0(
      "To use this function, you need to have the `EBImage` package ",
      "installed.", "\n", ebimg_install_msg()
    ))
  }
  invisible(TRUE)
}

match_pillar_to_row_3 <- function(arr3d, mat) {
  checkmate::assert_array(arr3d, d = 3, mode = "double")
  checkmate::assert_matrix(mat, mode = "integer")
  .Call("match_pillar_to_row_3_C", arr3d, mat, PACKAGE = "ijtiff")
}

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ijtiff documentation built on June 28, 2021, 9:07 a.m.