# elasticity3.lefkoMat: Estimate Elasticity of Population Growth Rate of a lefkoMat... In lefko3: Historical and Ahistorical Population Projection Matrix Analysis

 elasticity3.lefkoMat R Documentation

## Estimate Elasticity of Population Growth Rate of a lefkoMat Object

### Description

elasticity3.lefkoMat() returns the elasticities of population growth rate to elements of all \$A matrices in an object of class lefkoMat. If deterministic, then \lambda is taken as the population growth rate. If stochastic, then stochastic \lambda, or the stochastic growth rate, is taken as the population growth rate. This function can handle large and sparse matrices, and so can be used with large historical matrices, IPMs, age x stage matrices, as well as smaller ahistorical matrices.

### Usage

## S3 method for class 'lefkoMat'
elasticity3(
mats,
stochastic = FALSE,
times = 10000,
tweights = NA,
seed = NA,
sparse = "auto",
append_mats = FALSE,
...
)


### Arguments

 mats An object of class lefkoMat. stochastic A logical value determining whether to conduct a deterministic (FALSE) or stochastic (TRUE) elasticity analysis. Defaults to FALSE. times The number of occasions to project forward in stochastic simulation. Defaults to 10,000. tweights An optional numeric vector or matrix denoting the probabilities of choosing each matrix in a stochastic projection. If a matrix is input, then a first-order Markovian environment is assumed, in which the probability of choosing a specific annual matrix depends on which annual matrix is currently chosen. If a vector is input, then the choice of annual matrix is assumed to be independent of the current matrix. Defaults to equal weighting among matrices. seed A number to use as a random number seed in stochastic projection. sparse A text string indicating whether to use sparse matrix encoding ("yes") or dense matrix encoding ("no"). Defaults to "auto", in which case sparse matrix encoding is used with square matrices with at least 50 rows and no more than 50% of elements with values greater than zero. append_mats A logical value indicating whether to include the original A, U, and F matrices in the output lefkoElas object. ... Other parameters.

### Value

This function returns an object of class lefkoElas, which is a list with 8 elements. The first, h_elasmats, is a list of historical elasticity matrices (NULL if an ahMPM is used as input). The second, ah_elasmats, is a list of either ahistorical elasticity matrices if an ahMPM is used as input, or, if an hMPM is used as input, then the result is a list of elasticity matrices in which historical elasticities have been summed by the stage in occasions t and t+1 to produce historically-corrected elasticity matrices, which are equivalent in dimension to ahistorical elasticity matrices but reflect the effects of stage in occasion t-1. The third element, hstages, is a data frame showing historical stage pairs (NULL if ahMPM used as input). The fourth element, agestages, shows age-stage combinations in the order used in age-by-stage MPMs, if suppled. The fifth element, ahstages, is a data frame showing the order of ahistorical stages. The last 3 elements are the A, U, and F portions of the input.

### Notes

Deterministic elasticities are estimated as eqn. 9.72 in Caswell (2001, Matrix Population Models). Stochastic elasticities are estimated as eqn. 14.99 in Caswell (2001). Note that stochastic elasticities are of the stochastic \lambda, while stochastic sensitivities are with regard to the log of the stochastic \lambda.

Speed can sometimes be increased by shifting from automatic sparse matrix determination to forced dense or sparse matrix projection. This will most likely occur when matrices have between 30 and 300 rows and columns. Defaults work best when matrices are very small and dense, or very large and sparse.

The time_weights, steps, and force_sparse arguments are now deprecated. Instead, please use the tweights, times, and sparse arguments.

elasticity3()

elasticity3.dgCMatrix()

elasticity3.matrix()

elasticity3.list()

summary.lefkoElas()

### Examples

# Lathyrus example
data(lathyrus)

sizevector <- c(0, 100, 13, 127, 3730, 3800, 0)
stagevector <- c("Sd", "Sdl", "VSm", "Sm", "VLa", "Flo", "Dorm")
repvector <- c(0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0)
obsvector <- c(0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0)
matvector <- c(0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1)
immvector <- c(1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0)
propvector <- c(1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0)
indataset <- c(0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1)
binvec <- c(0, 100, 11, 103, 3500, 3800, 0.5)

lathframe <- sf_create(sizes = sizevector, stagenames = stagevector,
repstatus = repvector, obsstatus = obsvector, matstatus = matvector,
immstatus = immvector, indataset = indataset, binhalfwidth = binvec,
propstatus = propvector)

lathvert <- verticalize3(lathyrus, noyears = 4, firstyear = 1988,
patchidcol = "SUBPLOT", individcol = "GENET", blocksize = 9,
juvcol = "Seedling1988", sizeacol = "Volume88", repstracol = "FCODE88",
nonobsacol = "Dormant1988", stageassign = lathframe, stagesize = "sizea",
censorcol = "Missing1988", censorkeep = NA, censor = TRUE)

lathsupp3 <- supplemental(stage3 = c("Sd", "Sd", "Sdl", "Sdl", "Sd", "Sdl", "mat"),
stage2 = c("Sd", "Sd", "Sd", "Sd", "rep", "rep", "Sdl"),
stage1 = c("Sd", "rep", "Sd", "rep", "npr", "npr", "Sd"),
eststage3 = c(NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, "mat"),
eststage2 = c(NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, "Sdl"),
eststage1 = c(NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, "NotAlive"),
givenrate = c(0.345, 0.345, 0.054, 0.054, NA, NA, NA),
multiplier = c(NA, NA, NA, NA, 0.345, 0.054, NA),
type = c(1, 1, 1, 1, 3, 3, 1), type_t12 = c(1, 2, 1, 2, 1, 1, 1),
stageframe = lathframe, historical = TRUE)

ehrlen3 <- rlefko3(data = lathvert, stageframe = lathframe, year = "all",
stages = c("stage3", "stage2", "stage1"), supplement = lathsupp3,
yearcol = "year2", indivcol = "individ")

elasticity3(ehrlen3, stochastic = TRUE)

# Cypripedium example
data(cypdata)

sizevector <- c(0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 2.5, 4.5, 8, 17.5)
stagevector <- c("SD", "P1", "P2", "P3", "SL", "D", "XSm", "Sm", "Md", "Lg",
"XLg")
repvector <- c(0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1)
obsvector <- c(0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1)
matvector <- c(0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1)
immvector <- c(0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0)
propvector <- c(1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0)
indataset <- c(0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1)
binvec <- c(0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0.5, 0.5, 1, 1, 2.5, 7)

cypframe_raw <- sf_create(sizes = sizevector, stagenames = stagevector,
repstatus = repvector, obsstatus = obsvector, matstatus = matvector,
propstatus = propvector, immstatus = immvector, indataset = indataset,
binhalfwidth = binvec)

cypraw_v1 <- verticalize3(data = cypdata, noyears = 6, firstyear = 2004,
patchidcol = "patch", individcol = "plantid", blocksize = 4,
sizeacol = "Inf2.04", sizebcol = "Inf.04", sizeccol = "Veg.04",
repstracol = "Inf.04", repstrbcol = "Inf2.04", fecacol = "Pod.04",
stageassign = cypframe_raw, stagesize = "sizeadded", NAas0 = TRUE,
NRasRep = TRUE)

cypsupp2r <- supplemental(stage3 = c("SD", "P1", "P2", "P3", "SL", "D",
"XSm", "Sm", "SD", "P1"),
stage2 = c("SD", "SD", "P1", "P2", "P3", "SL", "SL", "SL", "rep",
"rep"),
eststage3 = c(NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, "D", "XSm", "Sm", NA, NA),
eststage2 = c(NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, "XSm", "XSm", "XSm", NA, NA),
givenrate = c(0.10, 0.20, 0.20, 0.20, 0.25, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA),
multiplier = c(NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, 0.5, 0.5),
type =c(1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 3, 3),
stageframe = cypframe_raw, historical = FALSE)

cypmatrix2r <- rlefko2(data = cypraw_v1, stageframe = cypframe_raw,
year = "all", patch = "all", stages = c("stage3", "stage2", "stage1"),