mou.loglik: Loglikelihood for multivariate Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process.

Description Usage Arguments Details Value Examples

Description

Computes the exact Euler loglikelihood for any amount of missing data using a Kalman filter.

Usage

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mou.loglik(X, dt, nvar.obs, Gamma, Lambda, Phi, mu0, Sigma0)

Arguments

X

An nobs x ndims matrix of complete data.

dt

A scalar or length nobs-1 vector of interobservations times.

nvar.obs

A scalar or length nobs vector of integers between 0 and ndims denoting the number of observed SDE variables in each row of data. Defaults to ndims. See sde.init for details.

Gamma

A ndims x ndims of linear-drift parameters. See Details.

Lambda

A length-ndims vector of constant-drift parameters. See Details.

Phi

A ndims x ndims positive definite variance matrix. See Details.

mu0, Sigma0

Mean and variance of marginal multivariate normal distribution of X[1,]. Defaults to iid standard normals for each component.

Details

The p-dimensional multivariate Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (mOU) process Y_t = (Y_1t, …, Y_dt) satisfies the SDE

dY_t = (Γ Y_t + Λ)dt + Φ^(1/2) dB_t,

where B_t = (B_1t, …, B_pt) is p-dimensional Brownian motion. Its Euler discretization is of the form

Y_n+1 = Y_n + (Γ Y_n + Λ) Δ_n + Φ^(1/2) Δ B_n,

where Y_n = Y(t_n), Δ_n = t_n+1 - t_n and

Δ B_n = B(t_n+1) - B(t_n) \sim iid N(0, Δ_n).

Thus, Y_0, …, Y_N is multivariate normal Markov chain for which the marginal distribution of any subset of timepoints and/or components can be efficiently calculated using the Kalman filter. This can be used to check the MCMC output of sde.post as in the example.

Value

Scalar value of the loglikelihood. See Details.

Examples

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# bivariate OU model
bmod <- sde.examples("biou")

# simulate some data

# true parameter values
Gamma0 <- .1 * crossprod(matrix(rnorm(4),2,2))
Lambda0 <- rnorm(2)
Phi0 <- crossprod(matrix(rnorm(4),2,2))
Psi0 <- chol(Phi0) # precompiled model uses the Cholesky scale
theta0 <- c(Gamma0, Lambda0, Psi0[c(1,3,4)])
names(theta0) <- bmod$param.names
# initial value
Y0 <- rnorm(2)
names(Y0) <- bmod$data.names

# simulation
dT <- runif(1, max = .1) # time step
nObs <- 10
bsim <- sde.sim(bmod, x0 = Y0, theta = theta0,
                dt = dT, dt.sim = dT, nobs = nObs)
YObs <- bsim$data

# inference via MCMC
binit <- sde.init(bmod, x = YObs, dt = dT, theta = theta0,
                  nvar.obs = 1) # second component is unobserved
# only Lambda1 is unknown
fixed.params <- rep(TRUE, bmod$nparams)
names(fixed.params) <- bmod$param.names
fixed.params["Lambda1"] <- FALSE
# prior on (Lambda1, Y_0)
hyper <- list(mu = c(0,0), Sigma = diag(2))
names(hyper$mu) <- bmod$data.names
dimnames(hyper$Sigma) <- rep(list(bmod$data.names), 2)

# posterior sampling
nsamples <- 1e5
burn <- 1e3
bpost <- sde.post(bmod, binit, hyper = hyper,
                  fixed.params = fixed.params,
                  nsamples = nsamples, burn = burn)
L1.mcmc <- bpost$params[,"Lambda1"]

# analytic posterior
L1.seq <- seq(min(L1.mcmc), max(L1.mcmc), len = 500)
L1.loglik <- sapply(L1.seq, function(l1) {
  lambda <- Lambda0
  lambda[1] <- l1
  mou.loglik(X = YObs, dt = dT, nvar.obs = 1,
             Gamma = Gamma0, Lambda = lambda, Phi = Phi0,
             mu0 = hyper$mu, Sigma0 = hyper$Sigma)
})
# normalize density
L1.Kalman <- exp(L1.loglik - max(L1.loglik))
L1.Kalman <- L1.Kalman/sum(L1.Kalman)/(L1.seq[2]-L1.seq[1])

# compare
hist(L1.mcmc, breaks = 100, freq = FALSE,
     main = expression(p(Lambda[1]*" | "*bold(Y)[1])),
     xlab = expression(Lambda[1]))
lines(L1.seq, L1.Kalman, col = "red")
legend("topright", legend = c("Analytic", "MCMC"),
       pch = c(NA, 22), lty = c(1, NA), col = c("red", "black"))

msde documentation built on May 2, 2019, 2:05 a.m.