R/photosyn.R

Defines functions inverseJfun Jfun Aci Photosyn

Documented in Aci Photosyn

#' @title Coupled leaf gas exchange model
#' @description A coupled photosynthesis - stomatal conductance model, based on the 
#' Farquhar model of photosynthesis, and a Ball-Berry type model of stomatal conductance. 
#' Includes options for temperature sensitivity of photosynthetic parameters, day respiration 
#' (optionally calculated from leaf temperature), and mesophyll conductance. 
#' @param VPD Vapour pressure deficit (kPa) (not needed when RH provided)
#' @param Ca Atmospheric CO2 concentration (ppm)
#' @param PPFD Photosynthetic photon flux density ('PAR') (mu mol m-2 s-1)
#' @param Tleaf Leaf temperature (degrees C)
#' @param Patm Atmospheric pressure (kPa) (but see warning below!)
#' @param RH Relative humidity (in \%) (not needed when VPD provided)
#' @param gsmodel One of BBOpti (Medlyn et al. 2011), BBLeuning (Leuning 1995), 
#' BallBerry (Ball et al. 1987), or BBdefine (for full control; see Details).
#' @param g0,g1 Parameters of Ball-Berry type stomatal conductance models.
#' @param gk Optional, exponent of VPD in gs model (Duursma et al. 2013)
#' @param vpdmin Below vpdmin, VPD=vpdmin, to avoid very high gs.
#' @param D0 Parameter for the BBLeuning stomatal conductance model.
#' @param GS Optionally, stomatal conductance (to H2O). If provided, \code{Photosyn} 
#' calculates Ci and photosynthesis. See Details.
#' @param BBmult Optional, only used when \code{gsmodel = "BBdefine"}, see Details.
#' @param alpha Quantum yield of electron transport (mol mol-1)
#' @param theta Shape of light response curve.
#' @param Jmax Maximum rate of electron transport at 25 degrees C (mu mol m-2 s-1)
#' @param Vcmax Maximum carboxylation rate at 25 degrees C (mu mol m-2 s-1)
#' @param gmeso Mesophyll conductance (mol m-2 s-1). If not NULL (the default), Vcmax and 
#' Jmax are chloroplastic rates.
#' @param TPU Triose-phosphate utilization rate (mu mol m-2 s-1); optional.
#' @param alphag Fraction of glycolate not returned to the chloroplast; parameter in 
#' TPU-limited photosynthesis (optional, only to be used when TPU is provided) (0 - 1)
#' @param Rd Day respiration rate (mu mol m-2 s-1), optional (if not provided, calculated 
#' from Tleaf, Rd0, Q10 and TrefR). Must be a positive value (an error occurs when a 
#' negative value is supplied).
#' @param Rd0 Day respiration rate at reference temperature (\code{TrefR}). Must be a positive value.
#' @param Q10 Temperature sensitivity of Rd.
#' @param TrefR Reference temperature for Rd (Celcius).
#' @param Rdayfrac Ratio of Rd in the light vs. in the dark.
#' @param EaV,EdVC,delsC Vcmax temperature response parameters
#' @param EaJ,EdVJ,delsJ Jmax temperature response parameters
#' @param Km,GammaStar Optionally, provide Michaelis-Menten coefficient for Farquhar 
#' model, and Gammastar. If not provided, they are calculated with a built-in function 
#' of leaf temperature.
#' @param Ci Optional, intercellular CO2 concentration (ppm). If not provided, 
#' calculated via gs model.
#' @param Tcorrect If TRUE, corrects input Vcmax and Jmax for actual Tleaf (if FALSE, 
#' assumes the provided Vcmax and Jmax are at the Tleaf provided). \strong{Warning} : since package 
#' version 1.4, the default parameters have been adjusted (see Details).
#' @param returnParsOnly If TRUE, returns calculated Vcmax,Jmax,Km and GammaStar based on 
#' leaf temperature.
#' @param whichA Which assimilation rate does gs respond to? 
#' @param \dots Further arguments passed to \code{Photosyn}
#' @seealso \code{\link{FARAO}}, \code{\link{fitaci}}, \code{\link{AciC4}}
#' @details The coupled photosynthesis - stomatal conductance model finds the intersection between 
#' the supply of CO2 by diffusion, and the demand for CO2 by photosynthesis. See Farquhar and 
#' Sharkey (1982) for basic description of this type of model, Duursma (2015) for more details 
#' on the implementation in the \code{plantecophys} package, and Duursma et al. (2014) for an 
#' example application (that uses this implementation).
#' 
#' \strong{Photosynthesis model and temperature response} - 
#' The model of Farquhar et al. (1980) is used to estimate the dependence of leaf net 
#' photosynthesis rate (ALEAF) on intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), accounting for all 
#' three limitations (electron transport, carboxylation, and TPU limitation). The equations 
#' for the temperature response of photosynthetic parameters, including Vcmax, Jmax, 
#' Gammastar, and Km follow Medlyn et al. (2002). However, \strong{note that the default 
#' temperature response parameter values are not taken from Medlyn, and likely will have to 
#' be adjusted for your situation}. \strong{Warning} : since package version 1.4, the default 
#' parameters have been adjusted. The new parameter values (EaV, EdVJ, delSJ, etc.) were based 
#' on a comprehensive literature review. See vignette("new_T_responses") or the article on 
#' remkoduursma.github.io/plantecophys.
#' 
#' #'  By default, the \code{Photosyn} function returns the hyperbolic minimum of Vcmax and 
#' Jmax-limited photosynthetic rates, as well as the hyperbolic minimum of Jmax-limited and 
#' TPU-limited rates. This approach avoids the discontinuity at the transition between the 
#' two rates (thus allowing use of \code{Photosyn} and \code{fitaci} in optimization or 
#' fitting routines). The individual rates (Ac, Aj and Ap) are also returned as output 
#' should they be needed. Note that those rates are output as gross photosynthetic rates 
#' (leaf respiration has to be subtracted to give net leaf photosynthesis).
#' 
#' \strong{Coupled leaf gas exchange}
#'  When Ci is not provided, Ci is calculated from the intersection between the 'supply' and 
#'  'demand', where 'demand' is given by the Farquhar model of photosynthesis (A=f(Ci)), and 
#'  supply by the stomatal conductance. The latter is, by default, estimated using the 
#'  stomatal conductance model of Medlyn et al. (2011), but two other models are provided 
#'  as well (Ball-Berry and Leuning, see \code{gsmodel} argument). Otherwise, stomatal 
#'  conductance may be directly provided via the \code{GS} argument. 
#' 
#'  \strong{Stomatal conductance models} -  
#'  At the moment, three stomatal conductance models are implemented. The 'BBOpti' model 
#'  is a slightly more general form of the model of Medlyn et al. 2011 (see Duursma et al. 
#'  2013). It is given by (in notation of the parameters and output 
#'  variables of \code{Photosyn}),
#'  
#'  \deqn{GS = g0 + 1.6*(1 + g1/D^(1-gk))*ALEAF/CA}
#'  
#'  where \code{gk = 0.5} if stomata behave optimally (cf. Medlyn et al. 2011).
#'  
#'  The 'BBLeuning' model is that of Leuning (1995). It is given by,
#'  
#'  \deqn{GS = g0 + g1*ALEAF/(Ca * (1 + VPD/D0))}
#'  
#'  Note that this model also uses the g1 parameter, but it needs to be set to 
#'  a much higher value to be comparable in magnitude to the BBOpti model.
#'  
#'  The 'BallBerry' model is that of Ball et al. (1987). It is given by,
#'  
#'  \deqn{GS = g0 + g1*RH*ALEAF/Ca}
#'  
#'  Where RH is relative humidity. Again, the g1 value is not comparable to that 
#'  used in the previous two models.
#'  
#'  Finally, \code{Photosyn} provides a very flexible Ball-Berry model, where 
#'  the multiplier has to be specified by the user, the model is:
#'  
#'  \deqn{GS = g0 + BBmult*ALEAF}
#'  
#'  This interface can be used to quickly simulate what happens if stomata do 
#'  not respond to humidity at all (in which case BBmult=g1/Ca, or ca. 5/400), or 
#'  to use the Tuzet model of stomatal conductance inside another model that provides 
#'  the leaf water potential function.
#'  
#'  For the full numerical solution to the Cowan-Farquhar optimization, use 
#'  the \code{\link{FARAO}} function (which was used in Medlyn et al. 2011 for 
#'  comparison to the approximation there presented). See Duursma (2015) for more details.
#'  
#'  \strong{Mesophyll conductance} - 
#'  
#'  If the mesophyll conductance \code{gmeso} is provided as an input, it is assumed 
#'  that Vcmax and Jmax are the chloroplastic rates, and leaf photosynthesis is 
#'  calculated following the equations from Ethier and Livingston (2004). When very 
#'  low mesophyll conductance rates are input, the model may return poor solutions 
#'  (and sometimes they may not exist).
#'  
#'  \strong{Simulating A-Ci curves}
#'  
#'  If Ci is provided as an input, this function calculates an A-Ci curve. For 
#'  example, you may do \code{Photosyn(Ci=300)}, for which the function \code{Aci} 
#'  is included as a shortcut (\code{Aci(300)}).
#'  
#' \strong{Atmospheric pressure} - 
#' 
#' A correction for atmospheric pressure (Patm) is implemented in \code{\link{fitaci}}, 
#' but \strong{not in Photosyn}. In \code{fitaci}, the necessary corrections are applied 
#' so that estimated Vcmax and Jmax are expressed at standard pressure (Patm=100kPa). 
#' In Photosyn, however, the corrections are much more complicated and tend to be very 
#' small, because effects of Patm on partial pressures are largely offset by increases 
#' in diffusivity (Terashima et al. 1995, Gale 1973). 
#' 
#' Note that Patm is an argument to the Photosyn function, but it only affects 
#' calculations of Km and GammaStar (as used by fitaci), and transpiration rate. 
#' Setting only Patm \strong{does not correct for atmospheric pressure effects on 
#' photosynthesis rates}.
#' 
#' The simulation of limitation of the photosynthetic rate to triose-phosphate 
#' utilization follows details in Ellsworth et al. (2015), their Eq. 7. Note that 
#' the parameter \code{alphag} is set to zero by default.
#' 
#' 
#' 
#' @references 
#' Duursma, R.A., Payton, P., Bange, M.P., Broughton, K.J., Smith, R.A., Medlyn, B.E., Tissue, 
#' D. T., 2013,  Near-optimal response of instantaneous transpiration efficiency to vapour 
#' pressure deficit, temperature and [CO2] in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Agricultural 
#' and Forest Meteorology 168 : 168 - 176.
#' 
#' Duursma, R.A., Barton, C.V.M., Lin, Y.-S., Medlyn, B.E., Eamus, D., Tissue, D.T., Ellsworth, 
#' D.S., McMurtrie, R.E., 2014. The peaked response of transpiration rate to vapour pressure 
#' deficit in field conditions can be explained by the temperature optimum of photosynthesis.
#' Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 189 - 190, 2-10. doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2013.12.007
#'
#' Duursma, R.A., 2015. Plantecophys - An R Package for Analysing and Modelling Leaf Gas 
#' Exchange Data. PLoS ONE 10, e0143346. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0143346
#' 
#' Ellsworth, D.S., Crous, K.Y., Lambers, H., Cooke, J., 2015. Phosphorus recycling in 
#' photorespiration maintains high photosynthetic capacity in woody species. Plant Cell 
#' Environ 38, 1142-1156. doi:10.1111/pce.12468
#'
#'Ethier, G. and N. Livingston. 2004. On the need to incorporate sensitivity to CO2 
#'transfer conductance into the Farquhar von Caemmerer Berry leaf photosynthesis model. 
#'Plant, Cell & Environment. 27:137-153.
#'
#' Farquhar, G.D., S. Caemmerer and J.A. Berry. 1980. A biochemical model of photosynthetic 
#' CO2 assimilation in leaves of C3 species. Planta. 149:78-90.
#' 
#' Farquhar, G. D., & Sharkey, T. D. (1982). Stomatal conductance and photosynthesis. 
#' Annual review of plant physiology, 33(1), 317-345.
#' 
#' Gale, J., 1972. Availability of Carbon Dioxide for Photosynthesis at High Altitudes: 
#' Theoretical Considerations. Ecology 53, 494-497. doi:10.2307/1934239
#' 
#' Leuning, R. 1995. A critical-appraisal of a combined stomatal-photosynthesis model for 
#' C-3 plants. Plant Cell and Environment. 18:339-355.
#'
#' Medlyn, B.E., E. Dreyer, D. Ellsworth, M. Forstreuter, P.C. Harley, M.U.F. Kirschbaum, 
#' X. Le Roux, P. Montpied, J. Strassemeyer, A. Walcroft, K. Wang and D. Loustau. 2002. 
#' Temperature response of parameters of a biochemically based model of photosynthesis. 
#' II. A review of experimental data. Plant Cell and Environment. 25:1167-1179.
#' 
#' Medlyn, B.E., R.A. Duursma, D. Eamus, D.S. Ellsworth, I.C. Prentice, C.V.M. Barton, 
#' K.Y. Crous, P. De Angelis, M. Freeman and L. Wingate. 2011. Reconciling the optimal 
#' and empirical approaches to modelling stomatal conductance. Global Change Biology. 
#' 17:2134-2144.
#' 
#' Terashima, I., Masuzawa, T., Ohba, H., Yokoi, Y., 1995. Is photosynthesis suppressed at 
#' higher elevations due to low CO2 pressure? Ecology 76, 2663-2668. doi:10.2307/2265838
#' 
#' @aliases Photosyn Aci
#' @return Returns a dataframe.
#' @examples
#' # Run the coupled leaf gas exchange model, set only a couple of parameters
#' Photosyn(VPD=2, g1=4, Ca=500)
#' 
#' # It is easy to set multiple values for inputs (and these can be mixed with single inputs);
#' r <- Photosyn(VPD=seq(0.5, 4, length=25), Vcmax=50, Jmax=100)
#' with(r, plot(VPD, ALEAF, type='l'))
#' 
#' # Set the mesophyll conductance
#' run1 <- Photosyn(PPFD=seq(50,1000,length=25), gmeso=0.15, Vcmax=40, Jmax=85)
#' with(run1, plot(PPFD, GS, type='l'))
#' 
#' # Run A-Ci curve only (provide Ci instead of calculating it).
#' arun1 <- Aci(Ci=seq(50, 1200, length=101), Vcmax=40, Jmax=85)
#' arun2 <- Aci(Ci=seq(50, 1200, length=101), Vcmax=30, Jmax=70)
#' with(arun1, plot(Ci, ALEAF, type='l'))
#' with(arun2, points(Ci, ALEAF, type='l', lty=5))
#' 
#' # Find the intersection between supply of CO2 and demand for CO2 (cf. Farquhar and Sharkey 1982).
#' 
#' # Set some parameters
#' gs <- 0.2  # stomatal conductance to H2O
#' Ca <- 400  # ambient CO2
#' gctogw <- 1.57  # conversion
#' gc <- gs / gctogw  # stomatal conductance to CO2
#'
#' # Demand curve (Farquhar model)
#' p <- Aci(seq(60,500,length=101), Ca=400)
#'
#' # Provide stomatal conductance as input, gives intersection point.
#' g <- Photosyn(GS=gs, Ca=Ca)
#'
#' # Intersection point visualized
#' par(yaxs="i")
#' with(p, plot(Ci, ALEAF, type='l', ylim=c(0,max(ALEAF))))
#' with(g, points(Ci, ALEAF, pch=19, col="red"))
#' abline(gc * Ca, -gc, lty=5)
#' 
#' legend("topleft", c(expression("Demand:"~~A==f(C[i])),
#'                     expression("Supply:"~~A==g[c]*(C[a]-C[i])),
#'                     "Operating point"),
#'        lty=c(1,5,-1),pch=c(-1,-1,19),
#'        col=c("black","black","red"),
#'        bty='n', cex=0.9)
#' @export
#' @rdname Photosyn
Photosyn <- function(VPD=1.5, 
                     Ca=400, 
                     PPFD=1500,
                     Tleaf=25,
                     Patm=100,
                     RH=NULL,
                     
                     gsmodel=c("BBOpti","BBLeuning","BallBerry","BBdefine"),
                     g1=4,
                     g0=0, 
                     gk=0.5,
                     vpdmin=0.5,
                     D0=5,
                     GS=NULL,
                     BBmult=NULL,
                     
                     alpha=0.24, 
                     theta=0.85, 
                     Jmax=100, 
                     Vcmax=50, 
                     gmeso=NULL,
                     TPU=1000,
                     alphag=0,
                     
                     Rd0 = 0.92,
                     Q10 = 1.92,
                     Rd=NULL,
                     TrefR = 25,
                     Rdayfrac = 1.0,
                     
                     EaV = 58550,
                     EdVC = 200000,
                     delsC = 629.26,
                     
                     EaJ = 29680,
                     EdVJ = 200000,
                     delsJ = 631.88,
                     
                     GammaStar = NULL,
                     Km = NULL,
  
                     Ci = NULL,
                     Tcorrect=TRUE,  
                     returnParsOnly=FALSE,
                     whichA=c("Ah","Amin","Ac","Aj")){

  
  whichA <- match.arg(whichA)
  gsmodel <- match.arg(gsmodel)
  if(gsmodel == "BBdefine" && is.null(BBmult)){
    Stop("When defining your own BB multiplier, set BBmult.")
  }
  inputCi <- !is.null(Ci)
  inputGS <- !is.null(GS)
  
  if(inputCi & inputGS)Stop("Cannot provide both Ci and GS.")
  
  if(is.null(TPU))TPU <- 1000
  
  if(is.null(VPD) && !is.null(RH)){
    VPD <- RHtoVPD(RH, Tleaf)
  } 
  if(is.null(VPD) && is.null(RH)){
    Stop("Need one of VPD, RH.")
  }

  #---- Constants; hard-wired parameters.
  Rgas <- .Rgas()
  GCtoGW <- 1.57     # conversion from conductance to CO2 to H2O
  
  
  #---- Do all calculations that can be vectorized
  
  # g1 and g0 are input ALWAYS IN UNITS OF H20
  # G0 must be converted to CO2 (but not G1, see below)
  g0 <- g0/GCtoGW
  
  # Leaf respiration
  if(is.null(Rd)){
    Rd <- Rdayfrac*Rd0*Q10^((Tleaf-TrefR)/10)
  }
  
  # CO2 compensation point in absence of photorespiration
  if(is.null(GammaStar))GammaStar <- TGammaStar(Tleaf,Patm)
  
  # Michaelis-Menten coefficient
  if(is.null(Km))Km <- TKm(Tleaf,Patm)
  
  #-- Vcmax, Jmax T responses
  if(Tcorrect){
    Vcmax <- Vcmax * TVcmax(Tleaf,EaV, delsC, EdVC)
    Jmax <- Jmax * TJmax(Tleaf, EaJ, delsJ, EdVJ)
  }
  
  # Electron transport rate
  J <- Jfun(PPFD, alpha, Jmax, theta)
  VJ <- J/4
  
  #--- Stop here if only the parameters are required
  if(returnParsOnly){
    return(list(Vcmax=Vcmax, Jmax=Jmax, Km=Km, GammaStar=GammaStar, VJ=VJ))
  }
  
  # Medlyn et al. 2011 model gs/A. NOTE: 1.6 not here because we need GCO2!
  if(gsmodel == "BBOpti"){
    vpduse <- VPD
    vpduse[vpduse < vpdmin] <- vpdmin
    GSDIVA <- (1 + g1/(vpduse^(1-gk)))/Ca
  }
  
  # Leuning 1995 model, without gamma (CO2 compensation point)
  if(gsmodel == "BBLeuning"){
    GSDIVA <- g1 / Ca / (1 + VPD/D0)
    GSDIVA <- GSDIVA / GCtoGW   # convert to conductance to CO2
  }
  
  # Original Ball&Berry 1987 model.
  if(gsmodel == "BallBerry"){
    if(is.null(RH))RH <- VPDtoRH(VPD, Tleaf)
    RH <- RH / 100
    GSDIVA <- g1 * RH / Ca
    GSDIVA <- GSDIVA / GCtoGW   # convert to conductance to CO2
  } 
  
  # Multiplier is user-defined.
  if(gsmodel == "BBdefine"){
    GSDIVA <- BBmult / GCtoGW
  }

  if(inputGS){
    
    GC <- GS / GCtoGW
    
    if(GS > 0){
      
      # Solution when Rubisco activity is limiting
      A <- 1./GC
      B <- (Rd - Vcmax)/GC - Ca - Km
      C <- Vcmax * (Ca - GammaStar) - Rd * (Ca + Km)
      Ac <- QUADM(A,B,C)
      
      # Photosynthesis when electron transport is limiting
      B <- (Rd - VJ)/GC - Ca - 2*GammaStar
      C <- VJ * (Ca - GammaStar) - Rd * (Ca + 2*GammaStar)
      Aj <- QUADM(A,B,C)
      
      # NOTE: the solution above gives net photosynthesis, add Rd
      # to get gross rates (to be consistent with other solutions).
      Ac <- Ac + Rd
      Aj <- Aj + Rd
    } else {
      Ac <- Aj <- 0
    }
    
  } else {
    
    # If CI not provided, calculate from intersection between supply and demand
    if(!inputCi){
    
        #--- non-vectorized workhorse
        getCI <- function(VJ,GSDIVA,PPFD,VPD,Ca,Tleaf,vpdmin,g0,Rd,
                              Vcmax,Jmax,Km,GammaStar){
          
          if(identical(PPFD, 0) | identical(VJ, 0)){
            vec <- c(Ca,Ca)
            return(vec)
          }
          
          # Taken from MAESTRA.
          # Following calculations are used for both BB & BBL models.
          # Solution when Rubisco activity is limiting
          A <- g0 + GSDIVA * (Vcmax - Rd)
          B <- (1. - Ca*GSDIVA) * (Vcmax - Rd) + g0 * 
            (Km - Ca)- GSDIVA * (Vcmax*GammaStar + Km*Rd)
          C <- -(1. - Ca*GSDIVA) * (Vcmax*GammaStar + Km*Rd) - g0*Km*Ca
          
          CIC <- QUADP(A,B,C)
          
          # Solution when electron transport rate is limiting
          A <- g0 + GSDIVA * (VJ - Rd)
          B <- (1 - Ca*GSDIVA) * (VJ - Rd) + g0 * (2.*GammaStar - Ca)- 
            GSDIVA * (VJ*GammaStar + 2.*GammaStar*Rd)
          C <- -(1 - Ca*GSDIVA) * GammaStar * (VJ + 2*Rd) - 
            g0*2*GammaStar*Ca
          
          CIJ <- QUADP(A,B,C)
          return(c(CIJ,CIC))
        }
      
      # get Ci
      x <- mapply(getCI, 
                  VJ=VJ,
                  GSDIVA = GSDIVA,
                  PPFD=PPFD,
                  VPD=VPD,
                  Ca=Ca,
                  Tleaf=Tleaf,
                  vpdmin=vpdmin,
                  g0=g0,
                  Rd=Rd,
                  Vcmax=Vcmax,
                  Jmax=Jmax,
                  Km=Km,
                  GammaStar=GammaStar)
        
        CIJ <- x[1,]
        CIC <- x[2,]
      } else {
        
        # Rare case where one Ci is provided, and multiple Tleaf (Jena bug).
        if(length(Ci) == 1){
          Ci <- rep(Ci, length(Km))
        }
        
        # Ci provided (A-Ci function mode)
        CIJ <- Ci
        
        if(length(GammaStar) > 1){
          CIJ[CIJ <= GammaStar] <- GammaStar[CIJ < GammaStar]
        } else {
          CIJ[CIJ <= GammaStar] <- GammaStar
        }
        
        CIC <- Ci
        
      }
  
    # Photosynthetic rates, without or with mesophyll limitation
    if(is.null(gmeso) || gmeso < 0){
      # Get photosynthetic rate  
      Ac <- Vcmax*(CIC - GammaStar)/(CIC + Km)
      Aj <- VJ * (CIJ - GammaStar)/(CIJ + 2*GammaStar)
    
    } else {
    # Ethier and Livingston (2004) (Equation 10).
      A <- -1/gmeso
      BC <- (Vcmax - Rd)/gmeso + CIC + Km
      CC <- Rd*(CIC+Km)-Vcmax*(CIC-GammaStar)
      Ac <- mapply(QUADP, A=A,B=BC,C=CC)
      
      BJ <- (VJ - Rd)/gmeso + CIC + 2.0*GammaStar
      CJ <- Rd*(CIC+2.0*GammaStar) - VJ*(CIC - GammaStar)
      Aj <- mapply(QUADP, A=A,B=BJ,C=CJ)
      
      Ac <- Ac + Rd
      Aj <- Aj + Rd
      
    }

    
      # When below light-compensation points, assume Ci=Ca.
      if(!inputCi){
        lesslcp <- vector("logical", length(Aj))
        lesslcp <- Aj <= Rd + 1E-09
        
        if(length(Ca) == 1)Ca <- rep(Ca, length(CIJ))
        if(length(GammaStar) == 1)GammaStar <- rep(GammaStar, length(CIJ))
        if(length(VJ) == 1)VJ <- rep(VJ, length(CIJ))
        
        CIJ[lesslcp] <- Ca[lesslcp]
        Aj[lesslcp] <- VJ[lesslcp] * (CIJ[lesslcp] - GammaStar[lesslcp]) / 
          (CIJ[lesslcp] + 2*GammaStar[lesslcp])
  
        Ci <- ifelse(Aj < Ac, CIJ, CIC)
        
      }
  }

    # Limitation by triose-phosphate utilization
    if(!is.null(Ci)){
      Ap <- 3 * TPU * (Ci - GammaStar)/(Ci - (1 + 3*alphag)*GammaStar)
      Ap[Ci < 400] <- 1000  # avoid nonsense
    } else {
      Ap <- 1000  # This is when inputGS = TRUE; 
    }  
  
  
    # Hyperbolic minimum.
    Am <- -mapply(QUADP, A = 1 - 1E-04, B = Ac+Aj, C = Ac*Aj)

    # Another hyperbolic minimum with the transition to TPU
    tpulim <- any(Ap < Am)
    if(!is.na(tpulim) && tpulim){
      Am <- -mapply(QUADP, A = 1 - 1E-07, B = Am+Ap, C = Am*Ap)
    }
    
    # Net photosynthesis
    Am <- Am - Rd
  
    # Calculate conductance to CO2
    if(!inputCi && !inputGS){
      if(whichA == "Ah")GS <- g0 + GSDIVA*Am
      if(whichA == "Aj")GS <- g0 + GSDIVA*(Aj-Rd)
      if(whichA == "Ac")GS <- g0 + GSDIVA*(Ac-Rd)
    } 
    if(inputCi) {
      if(whichA == "Ah")GS <- Am/(Ca - Ci)
      if(whichA == "Aj")GS <- (Aj-Rd)/(Ca - Ci)
      if(whichA == "Ac")GS <- (Ac-Rd)/(Ca - Ci)
    }

    # Extra step here; GS can be negative
    GS[GS < g0] <- g0
    
    # Output conductance to H2O
    if(!inputGS){
      GS <- GS*GCtoGW
    }
  
    # Calculate Ci if GS was provided as input.
    if(inputGS){
      Ci <- Ca - Am/GC
      
      # For zero GC:
      Ci[!is.finite(Ci)] <- Ca
      # Stomata fully shut; Ci is not really Ca but that's 
      # how we like to think about it.
    }
    
    # Chloroplastic CO2 concentration
    if(!is.null(gmeso)){
      Cc <- Ci - Am/gmeso
    } else {
      Cc <- Ci
    }
    
    # Transpiration rate assuming perfect coupling.
    # Output units are mmol m-2 s-1
    E <- 1000*GS*VPD/Patm
    
    df <- data.frame( Ci=Ci,
                      ALEAF=Am,
                      GS=GS,
                      ELEAF=E,
                      Ac=Ac,
                      Aj=Aj,
                      Ap=Ap,
                      Rd=Rd,
                      VPD=VPD,
                      Tleaf=Tleaf,
                      Ca=Ca,
                      Cc=Cc,
                      PPFD=PPFD,
                      Patm=Patm)

return(df)
}


#'@export
#'@rdname Photosyn
Aci <- function(Ci,...)Photosyn(Ci=Ci,...)



# Non-rectangular hyperbola
Jfun <- function(PPFD, alpha, Jmax, theta){
  (alpha*PPFD + Jmax - 
     sqrt((alpha*PPFD + Jmax)^2 - 4*alpha*theta*PPFD*Jmax))/(2*theta)
}

# Given PPFD and J, what is Jmax? (inverse non-rectangular hyperbola)
inverseJfun <- function(PPFD, alpha, J, theta){
  J*(J*theta - alpha*PPFD)/(J - alpha*PPFD)
}

Try the plantecophys package in your browser

Any scripts or data that you put into this service are public.

plantecophys documentation built on May 2, 2019, 6:36 a.m.