getSpectralEnvelope: Spectral envelope

View source: R/formants.R

getSpectralEnvelopeR Documentation

Spectral envelope

Description

Prepares a spectral envelope for filtering a sound to add formants, lip radiation, and some stochastic component regulated by temperature. Formants are specified as a list containing time, frequency, amplitude, and width values for each formant (see examples). See vignette('sound_generation', package = 'soundgen') for more information.

Usage

getSpectralEnvelope(
  nr,
  nc,
  formants = NA,
  formantDep = 1,
  formantWidth = 1,
  lipRad = 6,
  noseRad = 4,
  mouth = NA,
  mouthOpenThres = 0.2,
  openMouthBoost = 0,
  vocalTract = NULL,
  temperature = 0.05,
  formDrift = 0.3,
  formDisp = 0.2,
  formantDepStoch = 1,
  smoothLinearFactor = 1,
  formantCeiling = 2,
  samplingRate = 16000,
  speedSound = 35400,
  smoothing = list(),
  output = c("simple", "detailed")[1],
  plot = FALSE,
  duration = NULL,
  colorTheme = c("bw", "seewave", "...")[1],
  nCols = 100,
  xlab = "Time",
  ylab = "Frequency, kHz",
  ...
)

Arguments

nr

the number of frequency bins = windowLength_points/2, where windowLength_points is the size of window for Fourier transform

nc

the number of time steps for Fourier transform

formants

a character string like "aaui" referring to default presets for speaker "M1"; a vector of formant frequencies; or a list of formant times, frequencies, amplitudes, and bandwidths, with a single value of each for static or multiple values of each for moving formants. formants = NA defaults to schwa. Time stamps for formants and mouthOpening can be specified in ms or an any other arbitrary scale.

formantDep

scale factor of formant amplitude (1 = no change relative to amplitudes in formants)

formantWidth

scale factor of formant bandwidth (1 = no change)

lipRad

the effect of lip radiation on source spectrum, dB/oct (the default of +6 dB/oct produces a high-frequency boost when the mouth is open)

noseRad

the effect of radiation through the nose on source spectrum, dB/oct (the alternative to lipRad when the mouth is closed)

mouth

mouth opening (0 to 1, 0.5 = neutral, i.e. no modification) (anchor format)

mouthOpenThres

open the lips (switch from nose radiation to lip radiation) when the mouth is open >mouthOpenThres, 0 to 1

openMouthBoost

amplify the voice when the mouth is open by openMouthBoost dB

vocalTract

the length of vocal tract, cm. Used for calculating formant dispersion (for adding extra formants) and formant transitions as the mouth opens and closes. If NULL or NA, the length is estimated based on specified formant frequencies, if any (anchor format)

temperature

hyperparameter for regulating the amount of stochasticity in sound generation

formDrift

scale factor regulating the effect of temperature on the depth of random drift of all formants (user-defined and stochastic): the higher, the more formants drift at a given temperature

formDisp

scale factor regulating the effect of temperature on the irregularity of the dispersion of stochastic formants: the higher, the more unevenly stochastic formants are spaced at a given temperature

formantDepStoch

multiplication factor for the amplitude of additional formants added above the highest specified formant (0 = none, 1 = default)

smoothLinearFactor

regulates smoothing of formant anchors (0 to +Inf) as they are upsampled to the number of fft steps nc. This is necessary because the input formants normally contains fewer sets of formant values than the number of fft steps. smoothLinearFactor = 0: close to default spline; >3: approaches linear extrapolation

formantCeiling

frequency to which stochastic formants are calculated, in multiples of the Nyquist frequency; increase up to ~10 for long vocal tracts to avoid losing energy in the upper part of the spectrum

samplingRate

sampling frequency, Hz

speedSound

speed of sound in warm air, cm/s. Stevens (2000) "Acoustic phonetics", p. 138

smoothing

a list of parameters passed to getSmoothContour to control the interpolation and smoothing of contours: interpol (approx / spline / loess), loessSpan, discontThres, jumpThres

output

"simple" returns just the spectral filter, while "detailed" also returns a data.frame of formant frequencies over time (needed for internal purposes such as formant locking)

plot

if TRUE, produces a plot of the spectral envelope

duration

duration of the sound, ms (for plotting purposes only)

colorTheme

black and white ('bw'), as in seewave package ('seewave'), or another color theme (e.g. 'heat.colors')

nCols

number of colors in the palette

xlab, ylab

labels of axes

...

other graphical parameters passed on to image()

Value

Returns a spectral filter: a matrix with frequency bins in rows and time steps in columns. Accordingly, rownames of the output give central frequency of each bin (in kHz), while colnames give time stamps (in ms if duration is specified, otherwise 0 to 1).

Examples

# [a] with only F1-F3 visible, with no stochasticity
e = getSpectralEnvelope(nr = 512, nc = 50, duration = 300,
  formants = soundgen:::convertStringToFormants('a'),
  temperature = 0, plot = TRUE)
# image(t(e))  # to plot the output on a linear scale instead of dB

# some "wiggling" of specified formants plus extra formants on top
e = getSpectralEnvelope(nr = 512, nc = 50,
  formants = c(860, 1430, 2900),
  temperature = 0.1, formantDepStoch = 1, plot = TRUE)

# a schwa based on variable length of vocal tract
e = getSpectralEnvelope(nr = 512, nc = 100, formants = NA,
  vocalTract = list(time = c(0, .4, 1), value = c(13, 18, 17)),
  temperature = .1, plot = TRUE)

# no formants at all, only lip radiation
e = getSpectralEnvelope(nr = 512, nc = 50, lipRad = 6,
  formants = NA, temperature = 0, plot = FALSE)
plot(e[, 1], type = 'l')              # linear scale
plot(20 * log10(e[, 1]), type = 'l')  # dB scale - 6 dB/oct

# mouth opening
e = getSpectralEnvelope(nr = 512, nc = 50,
  vocalTract = 16, plot = TRUE, lipRad = 6, noseRad = 4,
  mouth = data.frame(time = c(0, .5, 1), value = c(0, 0, .5)))

# scale formant amplitude and/or bandwidth
e1 = getSpectralEnvelope(nr = 512, nc = 50,
  formants = soundgen:::convertStringToFormants('a'),
  formantWidth = 1, formantDep = 1)  # defaults
e2 = getSpectralEnvelope(nr = 512, nc = 50,
  formants = soundgen:::convertStringToFormants('a'),
  formantWidth = 1.5, formantDep = 1.5)
plot(as.numeric(rownames(e2)), 20 * log10(e2[, 1]),
     type = 'l', xlab = 'KHz', ylab = 'dB', col = 'red', lty = 2)
points(as.numeric(rownames(e1)), 20 * log10(e1[, 1]), type = 'l')

# manual specification of formants
e3 = getSpectralEnvelope(
  nr = 512, nc = 50, samplingRate = 16000, plot = TRUE,
  formants = list(
    f1 = list(freq = c(900, 500), amp = c(30, 35), width = c(80, 50)),
    f2 = list(freq = c(1900, 2500), amp = c(25, 30), width = 100),
    f3 = list(freq = 3400, amp = 30, width = 120)
))

# extra zero-pole pair (doesn't affect estimated VTL and thus the extra
# formants added on top)
e4 = getSpectralEnvelope(
  nr = 512, nc = 50, samplingRate = 16000, plot = TRUE,
  formants = list(
    f1 = list(freq = c(900, 500), amp = c(30, 35), width = c(80, 50)),
    f1.5 = list(freq = 1300, amp = -15),
    f1.7 = list(freq = 1500, amp = 15),
    f2 = list(freq = c(1900, 2500), amp = c(25, 30), width = 100),
    f3 = list(freq = 3400, amp = 30, width = 120)
))
plot(as.numeric(rownames(e4)), 20 * log10(e3[, ncol(e3)]),
     type = 'l', xlab = 'KHz', ylab = 'dB')
points(as.numeric(rownames(e4)), 20 * log10(e4[, ncol(e4)]),
       type = 'l', col = 'red', lty = 2)

soundgen documentation built on Aug. 14, 2022, 5:05 p.m.