soundgen: Generate a sound

View source: R/soundgen.R

soundgenR Documentation

Generate a sound

Description

Generates a bout of one or more syllables with pauses between them. Two basic components are synthesized: the harmonic component (the sum of sine waves with frequencies that are multiples of the fundamental frequency) and the noise component. Both components can be filtered with independently specified formants. Intonation and amplitude contours can be applied both within each syllable and across multiple syllables. Suggested application: synthesis of animal or human non-linguistic vocalizations. For more information, see http://cogsci.se/soundgen.html and vignette('sound_generation', package = 'soundgen').

Usage

soundgen(
  repeatBout = 1,
  nSyl = 1,
  sylLen = 300,
  pauseLen = 200,
  pitch = list(time = c(0, 0.1, 0.9, 1), value = c(100, 150, 135, 100)),
  pitchGlobal = NA,
  glottis = 0,
  temperature = 0.025,
  tempEffects = list(),
  maleFemale = 0,
  creakyBreathy = 0,
  nonlinBalance = 100,
  nonlinRandomWalk = NULL,
  subRatio = 2,
  subFreq = 0,
  subDep = 0,
  subWidth = 10000,
  shortestEpoch = 300,
  jitterLen = 1,
  jitterDep = 0,
  vibratoFreq = 5,
  vibratoDep = 0,
  shimmerDep = 0,
  shimmerLen = 1,
  attackLen = 50,
  rolloff = -9,
  rolloffOct = 0,
  rolloffKHz = -3,
  rolloffParab = 0,
  rolloffParabHarm = 3,
  rolloffExact = NULL,
  lipRad = 6,
  noseRad = 4,
  mouthOpenThres = 0,
  formants = c(860, 1430, 2900),
  formantDep = 1,
  formantDepStoch = 1,
  formantWidth = 1,
  formantCeiling = 2,
  formantLocking = 0,
  vocalTract = NA,
  amDep = 0,
  amFreq = 30,
  amType = c("logistic", "sine")[1],
  amShape = 0,
  noise = NULL,
  formantsNoise = NA,
  rolloffNoise = -4,
  noiseFlatSpec = 1200,
  rolloffNoiseExp = 0,
  noiseAmpRef = c("f0", "source", "filtered")[3],
  mouth = list(time = c(0, 1), value = c(0.5, 0.5)),
  ampl = NA,
  amplGlobal = NA,
  smoothing = list(interpol = c("approx", "spline", "loess")[3], loessSpan = NULL,
    discontThres = 0.05, jumpThres = 0.01),
  samplingRate = 16000,
  windowLength = 50,
  overlap = 75,
  addSilence = 100,
  pitchFloor = 1,
  pitchCeiling = 3500,
  pitchSamplingRate = 16000,
  dynamicRange = 80,
  invalidArgAction = c("adjust", "abort", "ignore")[1],
  plot = FALSE,
  play = FALSE,
  saveAudio = NA,
  ...
)

Arguments

repeatBout

number of times the whole bout should be repeated

nSyl

number of syllables in the bout. 'pitchGlobal', 'amplGlobal', and 'formants' span multiple syllables, but not multiple bouts

sylLen

average duration of each syllable, ms (vectorized)

pauseLen

average duration of pauses between syllables, ms (can be negative between bouts: force with invalidArgAction = 'ignore') (vectorized)

pitch

a numeric vector of f0 values in Hz or a dataframe specifying the time (ms or 0 to 1) and value (Hz) of each anchor, hereafter "anchor format". These anchors are used to create a smooth contour of fundamental frequency f0 (pitch) within one syllable

pitchGlobal

unlike pitch, these anchors are used to create a smooth contour of average f0 across multiple syllables. The values are in semitones relative to the existing pitch, i.e. 0 = no change (anchor format)

glottis

anchors for specifying the proportion of a glottal cycle with closed glottis, % (0 = no modification, 100 = closed phase as long as open phase); numeric vector or dataframe specifying time and value (anchor format)

temperature

hyperparameter for regulating the amount of stochasticity in sound generation

tempEffects

a list of scaling coefficients regulating the effect of temperature on particular parameters. To change, specify just those pars that you want to modify (1 = default, 0 = no stochastic behavior). amplDep, pitchDep, noiseDep: random fluctuations of user-specified amplitude / pitch / noise anchors; amplDriftDep: drift of amplitude mirroring pitch drift; formDisp: dispersion of stochastic formants; formDrift: formant frequencies; glottisDep: proportion of glottal cycle with closed glottis; pitchDriftDep: amount of slow random drift of f0; pitchDriftFreq: frequency of slow random drift of f0; rolloffDriftDep: drift of rolloff mirroring pitch drift; specDep: rolloff, rolloffNoise, nonlinear effects, attack; subDriftDep: drift of subharmonic frequency and bandwidth mirroring pitch drift; sylLenDep: duration of syllables and pauses

maleFemale

hyperparameter for shifting f0 contour, formants, and vocalTract to make the speaker appear more male (-1...0) or more female (0...+1); 0 = no change

creakyBreathy

hyperparameter for a rough adjustment of voice quality from creaky (-1) to breathy (+1); 0 = no change

nonlinBalance

hyperparameter for regulating the (approximate) proportion of sound with different regimes of pitch effects (none / subharmonics only / subharmonics and jitter). 0% = no noise; 100% = the entire sound has jitter + subharmonics. Ignored if temperature = 0

nonlinRandomWalk

a numeric vector specifying the timing of nonliner regimes: 0 = none, 1 = subharmonics, 2 = subharmonics + jitter + shimmer

subRatio

a positive integer giving the ratio of f0 (the main fundamental) to g0 (a lower frequency): 1 = no subharmonics, 2 = period doubling regardless of pitch changes, 3 = period tripling, etc; subRatio overrides subFreq (anchor format)

subFreq

instead of a specific number of subharmonics (subRatio), we can specify the approximate g0 frequency (Hz), which is used only if subRatio = 1 and is adjusted to f0 so f0/g0 is always an integer (anchor format)

subDep

the depth of subharmonics relative to the main frequency component (f0), %. 0: no subharmonics; 100: g0 harmonics are as strong as the nearest f0 harmonic (anchor format)

subWidth

Width of subharmonic sidebands - regulates how rapidly g-harmonics weaken away from f-harmonics: large values like the default 10000 means that all g0 harmonics are equally strong (anchor format)

shortestEpoch

minimum duration of each epoch with unchanging subharmonics regime or formant locking, in ms

jitterLen

duration of stable periods between pitch jumps, ms. Use a low value for harsh noise, a high value for irregular vibrato or shaky voice (anchor format)

jitterDep

cycle-to-cycle random pitch variation, semitones (anchor format)

vibratoFreq

the rate of regular pitch modulation, or vibrato, Hz (anchor format)

vibratoDep

the depth of vibrato, semitones (anchor format)

shimmerDep

random variation in amplitude between individual glottal cycles (0 to 100% of original amplitude of each cycle) (anchor format)

shimmerLen

duration of stable periods between amplitude jumps, ms. Use a low value for harsh noise, a high value for shaky voice (anchor format)

attackLen

duration of fade-in / fade-out at each end of syllables and noise (ms): a vector of length 1 (symmetric) or 2 (separately for fade-in and fade-out)

rolloff

basic rolloff from lower to upper harmonics, db/octave (exponential decay). All rolloff parameters are in anchor format. See getRolloff for more details

rolloffOct

basic rolloff changes from lower to upper harmonics (regardless of f0) by rolloffOct dB/oct. For example, we can get steeper rolloff in the upper part of the spectrum

rolloffKHz

rolloff changes linearly with f0 by rolloffKHz dB/kHz. For ex., -6 dB/kHz gives a 6 dB steeper basic rolloff as f0 goes up by 1000 Hz

rolloffParab

an optional quadratic term affecting only the first rolloffParabHarm harmonics. The middle harmonic of the first rolloffParabHarm harmonics is amplified or dampened by rolloffParab dB relative to the basic exponential decay

rolloffParabHarm

the number of harmonics affected by rolloffParab

rolloffExact

user-specified exact strength of harmonics: a vector or matrix with one row per harmonic, scale 0 to 1 (overrides all other rolloff parameters)

lipRad

the effect of lip radiation on source spectrum, dB/oct (the default of +6 dB/oct produces a high-frequency boost when the mouth is open)

noseRad

the effect of radiation through the nose on source spectrum, dB/oct (the alternative to lipRad when the mouth is closed)

mouthOpenThres

open the lips (switch from nose radiation to lip radiation) when the mouth is open >mouthOpenThres, 0 to 1

formants

either a character string like "aaui" referring to default presets for speaker "M1" or a list of formant times, frequencies, amplitudes, and bandwidths (see ex. below). formants = NA defaults to schwa. Time stamps for formants and mouthOpening can be specified in ms or an any other arbitrary scale. See getSpectralEnvelope for more details

formantDep

scale factor of formant amplitude (1 = no change relative to amplitudes in formants)

formantDepStoch

the amplitude of additional stochastic formants added above the highest specified formant, dB (only if temperature > 0)

formantWidth

scale factor of formant bandwidth (1 = no change)

formantCeiling

frequency to which stochastic formants are calculated, in multiples of the Nyquist frequency; increase up to ~10 for long vocal tracts to avoid losing energy in the upper part of the spectrum

formantLocking

the approximate proportion of sound in which one of the harmonics is locked to the nearest formant, 0 = none, 1 = the entire sound (anchor format)

vocalTract

the length of vocal tract, cm. Used for calculating formant dispersion (for adding extra formants) and formant transitions as the mouth opens and closes. If NULL or NA, the length is estimated based on specified formant frequencies, if any (anchor format)

amDep

amplitude modulation (AM) depth, %. 0: no change; 100: AM with amplitude range equal to the dynamic range of the sound (anchor format)

amFreq

AM frequency, Hz (anchor format)

amType

"sine" = sinusoidal, "logistic" = logistic (default)

amShape

ignore if amType = "sine", otherwise determines the shape of non-sinusoidal AM: 0 = ~sine, -1 = notches, +1 = clicks (anchor format)

noise

loudness of turbulent noise (0 dB = as loud as voiced component, negative values = quieter) such as aspiration, hissing, etc (anchor format)

formantsNoise

the same as formants, but for unvoiced instead of voiced component. If NA (default), the unvoiced component will be filtered through the same formants as the voiced component, approximating aspiration noise [h]

rolloffNoise, noiseFlatSpec

linear rolloff of the excitation source for the unvoiced component, rolloffNoise dB/kHz (anchor format) applied above noiseFlatSpec Hz

rolloffNoiseExp

exponential rolloff of the excitation source for the unvoiced component, dB/oct (anchor format) applied above 0 Hz

noiseAmpRef

noise amplitude is defined relative to: "f0" = the amplitude of the first partial (fundamental frequency), "source" = the amplitude of the harmonic component prior to applying formants, "filtered" = the amplitude of the harmonic component after applying formants

mouth

mouth opening (0 to 1, 0.5 = neutral, i.e. no modification) (anchor format)

ampl

amplitude envelope (dB, 0 = max amplitude) (anchor format)

amplGlobal

global amplitude envelope spanning multiple syllables (dB, 0 = no change) (anchor format)

smoothing

a list of parameters passed to getSmoothContour to control the interpolation and smoothing of contours: interpol (approx / spline / loess), loessSpan, discontThres, jumpThres

samplingRate

sampling frequency, Hz

windowLength

length of FFT window, ms

overlap

FFT window overlap, %. For allowed values, see istft

addSilence

silence before and after the bout, ms: a vector of length 1 (symmetric) or 2 (different duration of silence before/after the sound)

pitchFloor, pitchCeiling

lower & upper bounds of f0

pitchSamplingRate

sampling frequency of the pitch contour only, Hz. Low values reduce processing time. Set to pitchCeiling for optimal speed or to samplingRate for optimal quality

dynamicRange

dynamic range, dB. Harmonics and noise more than dynamicRange under maximum amplitude are discarded to save computational resources

invalidArgAction

what to do if an argument is invalid or outside the range in permittedValues: 'adjust' = reset to default value, 'abort' = stop execution, 'ignore' = throw a warning and continue (may crash)

plot

if TRUE, plots a spectrogram

play

if TRUE, plays the synthesized sound using the default player on your system. If character, passed to play as the name of player to use, eg "aplay", "play", "vlc", etc. In case of errors, try setting another default player for play

saveAudio

path + filename for saving the output, e.g. '~/Downloads/temp.wav'. If NULL = doesn't save

...

other plotting parameters passed to spectrogram

Value

Returns the synthesized waveform as a numeric vector.

See Also

generateNoise beat fart

Examples

# NB: GUI for soundgen is available as a Shiny app.
# Type "soundgen_app()" to open it in default browser

# Set "playback" to TRUE for default system player or the name of preferred
# player (eg "aplay") to play back the audio from examples
playback = c(TRUE, FALSE, 'aplay', 'vlc')[2]

sound = soundgen(play = playback)
# spectrogram(sound, 16000, osc = TRUE)
# playme(sound)

# Control of intonation, amplitude envelope, formants
s0 = soundgen(
  pitch = c(300, 390, 250),
  ampl = data.frame(time = c(0, 50, 300), value = c(-5, -10, 0)),
  attack = c(10, 50),
  formants = c(600, 900, 2200),
  play = playback
)

# Use the in-built collection of presets:
# names(presets)  # speakers
# names(presets$Chimpanzee)  # calls per speaker
s1 = eval(parse(text = presets$Chimpanzee$Scream_conflict))  # screaming chimp
# playme(s1)
s2 = eval(parse(text = presets$F1$Scream))  # screaming woman
# playme(s2, 18320)
## Not run: 
# unless temperature is 0, the sound is different every time
for (i in 1:3) sound = soundgen(play = playback, temperature = .2)

# Bouts versus syllables. Compare:
sound = soundgen(formants = 'uai', repeatBout = 3, play = playback)
sound = soundgen(formants = 'uai', nSyl = 3, play = playback)

# Intonation contours per syllable and globally:
sound = soundgen(nSyl = 5, sylLen = 200, pauseLen = 140,
  pitch = list(
    time = c(0, 0.65, 1),
    value = c(977, 1540, 826)),
  pitchGlobal = list(time = c(0, .5, 1), value = c(-6, 7, 0)),
  play = playback, plot = TRUE)

# Subharmonics / sidebands (noisy scream)
sound = soundgen(subFreq = 75, subDep = runif(10, 0, 60), subWidth = 130,
  pitch = list(
    time = c(0, .3, .9, 1), value = c(1200, 1547, 1487, 1154)),
  sylLen = 800,
  play = playback, plot = TRUE)

# Jitter and mouth opening (bark, dog-like)
sound = soundgen(repeatBout = 2, sylLen = 160, pauseLen = 100,
  subFreq = 100, subDep = 100, subWidth = 60, jitterDep = 1,
  pitch = c(559, 785, 557),
  mouth = c(0, 0.5, 0),
  vocalTract = 5, formants = NULL,
  play = playback, plot = TRUE)

# See the vignette on sound generation for more examples and in-depth
# explanation of the arguments to soundgen()
# Examples of code for creating human and animal vocalizations are available
# on project's homepage: http://cogsci.se/soundgen.html

## End(Not run)

soundgen documentation built on Aug. 14, 2022, 5:05 p.m.