localG | R Documentation |

The local spatial statistic G is calculated for each zone based on the spatial weights object used. The value returned is a Z-value, and may be used as a diagnostic tool. High positive values indicate the posibility of a local cluster of high values of the variable being analysed, very low relative values a similar cluster of low values. For inference, a Bonferroni-type test is suggested in the references, where tables of critical values may be found (see also details below).

```
localG(x, listw, zero.policy=attr(listw, "zero.policy"), spChk=NULL, GeoDa=FALSE,
alternative = "two.sided", return_internals=TRUE)
localG_perm(x, listw, nsim=499, zero.policy=attr(listw, "zero.policy"), spChk=NULL,
alternative = "two.sided", iseed=NULL, fix_i_in_Gstar_permutations=TRUE,
no_repeat_in_row=FALSE)
```

`x` |
a numeric vector the same length as the neighbours list in listw |

`listw` |
a |

`zero.policy` |
default NULL, use global option value; if TRUE assign zero to the lagged value of zones without neighbours, if FALSE assign NA |

`spChk` |
should the data vector names be checked against the spatial objects for identity integrity, TRUE, or FALSE, default NULL to use |

`GeoDa` |
default FALSE, if TRUE, drop x values for no-neighbour and self-neighbour only observations from all summations |

`nsim` |
default 499, number of conditonal permutation simulations |

`alternative` |
a character string specifying the alternative hypothesis, must be one of |

`return_internals` |
default |

`iseed` |
default NULL, used to set the seed for possible parallel RNGs |

`fix_i_in_Gstar_permutations` |
default |

`no_repeat_in_row` |
default |

If the neighbours member of listw has a "self.included" attribute set
to TRUE, the Gstar variant, including the self-weight `w_{ii} > 0`

,
is calculated and returned. The returned vector will have a "gstari"
attribute set to TRUE. Self-weights must be included by using the
`include.self`

function before converting
the neighbour list to a spatial weights list with `nb2listw`

as
shown below in the example.

The critical values of the statistic under assumptions given in the references for the 95th percentile are for n=1: 1.645, n=50: 3.083, n=100: 3.289, n=1000: 3.886.

A vector of G or Gstar standard deviate values, with attributes "gstari" set to TRUE or FALSE, "call" set to the function call, and class "localG". For conditional permutation, the returned value is the same as for `localG()`

, and the simulated standard deviate is returned as column `"StdDev.Gi"`

in `attr(., "internals")`

.

Conditional permutations added for comparative purposes; permutations are over the whole data vector omitting the observation itself, and from 1.2-8 fixing the observation itself as its own neighbour for local G-star.

Roger Bivand Roger.Bivand@nhh.no

Ord, J. K. and Getis, A. 1995 Local spatial autocorrelation
statistics: distributional issues and an application. *Geographical
Analysis*, 27, 286–306; Getis, A. and Ord, J. K. 1996 Local spatial
statistics: an overview. In P. Longley and M. Batty (eds) *Spatial
analysis: modelling in a GIS environment* (Cambridge: Geoinformation
International), 261–277; Bivand RS, Wong DWS 2018 Comparing implementations of global and local indicators of spatial association. TEST, 27(3), 716–748 \Sexpr[results=rd]{tools:::Rd_expr_doi("10.1007/s11749-018-0599-x")}

```
data(getisord, package="spData")
# spData 0.3.2 changes x, y, xyz object names to go_x, go_y, go_xyz to
# avoid putting these objects into the global environment via lazy loading
if (exists("go_xyz") && packageVersion("spData") >= "0.3.2") {
xyz <- go_xyz
x <- go_x
y <- go_y
}
xycoords <- cbind(xyz$x, xyz$y)
nb30 <- dnearneigh(xycoords, 0, 30)
G30 <- localG(xyz$val, nb2listw(nb30, style="B"))
G30[length(xyz$val)-136]
set.seed(1)
G30_sim <- localG_perm(xyz$val, nb2listw(nb30, style="B"))
G30_sim[length(xyz$val)-136]
nb60 <- dnearneigh(xycoords, 0, 60)
G60 <- localG(xyz$val, nb2listw(nb60, style="B"))
G60[length(xyz$val)-136]
nb90 <- dnearneigh(xycoords, 0, 90)
G90 <- localG(xyz$val, nb2listw(nb90, style="B"))
G90[length(xyz$val)-136]
nb120 <- dnearneigh(xycoords, 0, 120)
G120 <- localG(xyz$val, nb2listw(nb120, style="B"))
G120[length(xyz$val)-136]
nb150 <- dnearneigh(xycoords, 0, 150)
G150 <- localG(xyz$val, nb2listw(nb150, style="B"))
G150[length(xyz$val)-136]
brks <- seq(-5,5,1)
cm.col <- cm.colors(length(brks)-1)
image(x, y, t(matrix(G30, nrow=16, ncol=16, byrow=TRUE)),
breaks=brks, col=cm.col, asp=1)
text(xyz$x, xyz$y, round(G30, digits=1), cex=0.7)
polygon(c(195,225,225,195), c(195,195,225,225), lwd=2)
title(main=expression(paste("Values of the ", G[i], " statistic")))
G30s <- localG(xyz$val, nb2listw(include.self(nb30),
style="B"))
cat("value according to Getis and Ord's eq. 14.2, p. 263 (1996)\n")
G30s[length(xyz$val)-136]
cat(paste("value given by Getis and Ord (1996), p. 267",
"(division by n-1 rather than n \n in variance)\n"))
G30s[length(xyz$val)-136] *
(sqrt(sum(scale(xyz$val, scale=FALSE)^2)/length(xyz$val)) /
sqrt(var(xyz$val)))
image(x, y, t(matrix(G30s, nrow=16, ncol=16, byrow=TRUE)),
breaks=brks, col=cm.col, asp=1)
text(xyz$x, xyz$y, round(G30s, digits=1), cex=0.7)
polygon(c(195,225,225,195), c(195,195,225,225), lwd=2)
title(main=expression(paste("Values of the ", G[i]^"*", " statistic")))
```

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