mkGLMdf: Formats (lists of) spikeTrain and repeatedTrain Objects into...

Description Usage Arguments Details Value Note Author(s) References See Also Examples

View source: R/mkGLMdf.R

Description

Given a spikeTrain or a repeatedTrain objects or a list of any of those two, mkGLMdf generates a data.frame, by discretizing time, allowing glm and gam to be used with the poisson or binomial family to fit the spike trains.

Usage

1
mkGLMdf(obj, delta, lwr, upr, discrete = TRUE)

Arguments

obj

a spikeTrain or a repeatedTrain objects or a list of any of those two.

delta

the bin size used for time discretization (in s).

lwr

the time (in s) at which the recording window starts. If missing a value is obtained using the floor of the smallest spike time.

upr

the time (in s) at which the recording window ends. If missing a value is obtained using the ceiling of the largest spike time.

discrete

a logical. Should time differences be reported in bin (default value) or as actual times (FALSE)?

Details

If discrete is set to FALSE the actual time differences (from the "raw" data in obj) are reported.

The construction of the returned list is very clearly explained in Jim Lindsey's paper (1995). The idea has been used several time in the field: Brillinger (1988), Kass and Ventura (2001), Truccolo et al (2005).

Value

A data.frame with the following variables:

event

an integer presence (1) or absence (0) of an event from a given neuron in the given bin.

time

time at bin center.

neuron

a factor giving the neuron to which this row of the data frame refers.

lN.x

an integer (if discrete is TRUE) or a numeric (if discrete is FALSE). x takes value 1, 2, ..., number of neurons present in obj. The time to the last event of the corresponding neuron.

The list has also few attributes: lwr, the start of the recording window; upr, the end of the recording window; delta, the bin width; call, the call used to generate the list.

Note

See the example bellow to get an idea of what to do with the returned list.

Author(s)

Christophe Pouzat [email protected]

References

Lindsey, J. K. (1995) Fitting Parametric Counting Processes by Using Log-Linear Models Applied Statistics 44: 201–212.

Brillinger, D. R. (1988) Maximum likelihood analysis of spike trains of interacting nerve cells Biol Cybern 59: 189–200.

Kass, Robert E. and Ventura, Val\'erie (2001) A spike-train probability model Neural Comput. 13: 1713–1720.

Truccolo, W., Eden, U. T., Fellows, M. R., Donoghue, J. P. and Brown, E. N. (2005) A Point Process Framework for Relating Neural Spiking Activity to Spiking History, Neural Ensemble and Extrinsic Covariate Effects J Neurophysiol 93: 1074–1089. http://jn.physiology.org/cgi/content/abstract/93/2/1074

See Also

data.frame, glm, mgcv, as.spikeTrain, as.repeatedTrain

Examples

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## Not run: 
## Start with simulatd data #####
## Use thinning method and for that define a couple
## of functions

## expDecay gives an exponentially decaying
## synaptic effect followin a presynpatic spike.
## All the pre-synaptic spikes between "now" (argument
## t) and the previous spike of the post-synaptic
## neuron have an effect (and the summation is linear)
expDecay <- function(t,preT,last,
                     delay=0.002,tau=0.015) {
  
  if (missing(last)) good <- (preT+delay) < t
  else good <- last < preT & (preT+delay) < t
  if (sum(good) == 0) return(0)
  preS <- preT[good]
  preS <- t-preS-delay
  sum(exp(-preS/tau))

}

## Same as expDecay except that the effect is pusle like
pulseFF <- function(t,preT,last,
                    delay=0.005,duration=0.01) {
  if (missing(last)) good <- t-duration < (preT+delay) & (preT+delay) < t
  else good <- t-duration < (preT+delay) & last < preT & (preT+delay) < t
  sum(good)
}

## The work horse. Given a pre-synaptic train (preT),
## a duration, lognormal parameters and a presynaptic
## effect fucntion, mkPostTrain simulates a log-linear
## post-synaptic train using the thinning method
mkPostTrain <- function(preT,
                        duration=60,
                        meanlog=-2.4,
                        sdlog=0.4,
                        preFF=expDecay,
                        beta=log(5),
                        maxCI=30,
                        ...) {

  nuRest <- exp(-meanlog-0.5*sdlog^2)
  poissonRest <- nuRest*ifelse(beta>0,exp(beta),1)
  ciRest <- function(t) nuRest*exp(beta*preFF(t,preT,...))

  poissonNext <- maxCI*ifelse(beta>0,exp(beta),1)
  ci <- function(t,tLast) hlnorm(t-tLast,meanlog,sdlog)*exp(beta*preFF(t,preT,tLast,...))

  vLength <- poissonRest*300
  result <- numeric(vLength)
  currentTime <- 0
  lastTime <- 0
  eventIdx <- 1

  nextTime <- function(currentTime,lastTime) {
    if (currentTime > 0) {
      currentTime <- currentTime + rexp(1,poissonNext)
      ciRatio <- ci(currentTime,lastTime)/poissonNext
      if (ciRatio > 1) stop("Problem with thinning.")
      while (runif(1) > ciRatio) {
        currentTime <- currentTime + rexp(1,poissonNext)
        ciRatio <- ci(currentTime,lastTime)/poissonNext
        if (ciRatio > 1) stop("Problem with thinning.")
      }
    } else {
      currentTime <- currentTime + rexp(1,poissonRest)
      ciRatio <- ciRest(currentTime)/poissonRest
      if (ciRatio > 1) stop("Problem with thinning.")
      while (runif(1) > ciRatio) {
        currentTime <- currentTime + rexp(1,poissonRest)
        ciRatio <- ciRest(currentTime)/poissonRest
        if (ciRatio > 1) stop("Problem with thinning.")
      }
    }
    currentTime
  }

  while(currentTime <= duration) {
    currentTime <- nextTime(currentTime,lastTime)
    result[eventIdx] <- currentTime
    lastTime <- currentTime
    eventIdx <- eventIdx+1
    if (eventIdx > vLength) {
      result <- c(result,numeric(vLength))
      vLength <- length(result)
    }
  }
  result[result > 0]
  
}

## set the rng seed
set.seed(11006,"Mersenne-Twister")
## generate a log-normal pre train
preTrain <- cumsum(rlnorm(1000,-2.4,0.4))
preTrain <- preTrain[preTrain < 60]
## generate a post synaptic train with an
## exponentially decaying pre-synaptic excitation
post1 <- mkPostTrain(preTrain)
## generate a post synaptic train with a
## pulse-like pre-synaptic excitation
post2 <- mkPostTrain(preTrain,preFF=pulseFF)
## generate a post synaptic train with a
## pulse-like pre-synaptic inhibition
post3 <- mkPostTrain(preTrain,preFF=pulseFF,beta=-log(5))
## make a list of spikeTrain objects out of that
interData <- list(pre=as.spikeTrain(preTrain),
                  post1=as.spikeTrain(post1),
                  post2=as.spikeTrain(post2),
                  post3=as.spikeTrain(post3))
## remove the trains
rm(preTrain,post1,post2,post3)
## look at them
interData[["pre"]]
interData[["post1"]]
interData[["post2"]]
interData[["post3"]]
## compute cross-correlograms
interData.lt1 <- lockedTrain(interData[["pre"]],interData[["post1"]],laglim=c(-0.03,0.05),c(0,60))
interData.lt2 <- lockedTrain(interData[["pre"]],interData[["post2"]],laglim=c(-0.03,0.05),c(0,60))
interData.lt3 <- lockedTrain(interData[["pre"]],interData[["post3"]],laglim=c(-0.03,0.05),c(0,60))
## look at the cross-raster plots
interData.lt1
interData.lt2
interData.lt3
## look at the corresponding histograms
hist(interData.lt1,bw=0.0025)
hist(interData.lt2,bw=0.0025)
hist(interData.lt3,bw=0.0025)
## check out what goes on between post2 and post1
interData.lt1v2 <- lockedTrain(interData[["post2"]],interData[["post1"]],laglim=c(-0.03,0.05),c(0,60))
interData.lt1v2
hist(interData.lt1v2,bw=0.0025)

## fine
## create a GLM data frame using a 1 ms bin width
dfAll <- mkGLMdf(interData,delta=0.001,lwr=0,upr=60)
## build the sub-list relating to neuron 2
dfN2 <- dfAll[dfAll$neuron=="2",]
## load the mgcv library
library(mgcv)
## fit dfN2 with a smooth effect for the elasped time since the last
## event of neuron 2 and another one with the elasped time since the
## last event from neuron 1. Use moroever only the events for which the
## the last event from neuron 1 occurred at most 100 ms ago.
dfN2.fit0 <- gam(event ~ s(lN.1,bs="cr") + s(lN.2,bs="cr"), data=dfN2, family=poisson, subset=(dfN2$lN.1 <=100))
## look at the summary
summary(dfN2.fit0)
## plot the smooth term of neuron 1
plot(dfN2.fit0,select=1,rug=FALSE,ylim=c(-0.8,0.8))
## Can you see the exponential presynatic effect with
## a 15 ms decay time appearing?
## Now check the dependence on lN.2
xx <- seq(0.001,0.3,0.001)
## plot the estimated conditional intensity when the last spike
## from neuron 1 came a long time ago (100 ms)
plot(xx,exp(predict(dfN2.fit0,data.frame(lN.1=rep(100,300),lN.2=1:300))),type="l")
## add a line for the true conditional intensity
lines(xx,hlnorm(xx,-2.4,0.4)*0.001,col=2)
## do the same thing for the survival function
plot(xx,exp(-cumsum(exp(predict(dfN2.fit0,data.frame(lN.1=rep(100,300),lN.2=1:300))))),type="l")
lines(xx,plnorm(xx,-2.4,0.4,lower.tail=FALSE),col=2)

## Now repeat the fit including a possible contribution from neuron 3
dfN2.fit1 <- gam(event ~ s(lN.1,bs="cr") + s(lN.2,bs="cr") + s(lN.3,bs="cr"), data=dfN2, family=poisson, subset=(dfN2$lN.1 <=100) & (dfN2$lN.3 <= 100)) 
## Use the summary to see if the new element brings something
summary(dfN2.fit1)
## It does not!
## Now look at neurons 3 and 4 (ie, post2 and post3)
dfN3 <- dfAll[dfAll$neuron=="3",]
dfN3.fit0 <- gam(event ~ s(lN.1,k=20,bs="cr") + s(lN.3,k=15,bs="cr"),data=dfN3,family=poisson, subset=(dfN3$lN.1 <=100))
summary(dfN3.fit0)
plot(dfN3.fit0,select=1,ylim=c(-1.5,1.8),rug=FALSE)
dfN4 <- dfAll[dfAll$neuron=="4",]
dfN4.fit0 <- gam(event ~ s(lN.1,k=20,bs="cr") + s(lN.4,k=15,bs="cr"),data=dfN4,family=poisson, subset=(dfN4$lN.1 <=100))
summary(dfN4.fit0)
plot(dfN4.fit0,select=1,ylim=c(-1.8,1.5),rug=FALSE)

## End(Not run)

STAR documentation built on May 31, 2017, 2:28 a.m.