Flatten list-like objects


Given a list-like object x, unlist produces a vector-like object obtained by concatenating (conceptually thru c) all the top-level elements in x (each of them being expected to be a vector-like object, typically).

NOTE: This man page is for the unlist S4 generic function defined in the BiocGenerics package. See ?base::unlist for the default method (defined in the base package). Bioconductor packages can define specific methods for objects not supported by the default method.


unlist(x, recursive=TRUE, use.names=TRUE)



A list-like object.

recursive, use.names

See ?base::unlist for a description of these arguments.


See ?base::unlist for the value returned by the default method.

Specific methods defined in Bioconductor packages should behave as consistently as possible with the default method.

See Also

  • base::unlist for the default unlist method.

  • showMethods for displaying a summary of the methods defined for a given generic function.

  • selectMethod for getting the definition of a specific method.

  • unlist,List-method in the S4Vectors package for an example of a specific unlist method (defined for List objects).

  • BiocGenerics for a summary of all the generics defined in the BiocGenerics package.


unlist  # note the dispatch on the 'x' arg only
selectMethod("unlist", "ANY")  # the default method

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