MalevolentUniformsNFL: Malevolent Uniforms NFL

Description Format Details Source Examples


Perceived malevolence of uniforms and penalies for National Football League (NFL) teams


A data frame with 28 observations on the following 7 variables.

  • NFLTeam Team name

  • NFL_Malevolence Score reflecting the "malevolence" of a team's uniform

  • ZPenYds Z-score for penalty yards


Participants with no knowledge of the teams rated the jerseys on characteristics such as timid/aggressive, nice/mean and good/bad. The averages of these responses produced a "malevolence" index with higher scores signifying impressions of more malevolent uniforms. To measure aggressiveness, the authors used the amount of penalty yards converted to z-scores and averaged for each team over the seasons from 1970-1986.


Frank and Gilovich, "The Dark Side of Self- and Social Perception: Black Uniforms and Aggression in Professional Sports", Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 54, No. 1, 1988, p. 74-85.



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