Perceived malevolence of uniforms and penalies for National Football League (NFL) teams
A data frame with 28 observations on the following 7 variables.
NFLTeam Team name
NFL_Malevolence Score reflecting the "malevolence" of a
ZPenYds Z-score for penalty yards
Participants with no knowledge of the teams rated the jerseys on characteristics such as timid/aggressive, nice/mean and good/bad. The averages of these responses produced a "malevolence" index with higher scores signifying impressions of more malevolent uniforms. To measure aggressiveness, the authors used the amount of penalty yards converted to z-scores and averaged for each team over the seasons from 1970-1986.
Frank and Gilovich, "The Dark Side of Self- and Social Perception: Black Uniforms and Aggression in Professional Sports", Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 54, No. 1, 1988, p. 74-85.