Description Usage Arguments Details Value Contributors Author(s) References See Also Examples

This function negates simple or complex Boolean expressions using the two De Morgan Laws.

1 2 3 | ```
DeMorgan(expression, and.split = "", use.tilde = FALSE)
is.DeMorgan(x)
``` |

`expression` |
A string representing a Boolean expression or a solution object of class 'qca'. |

`and.split` |
The AND-operator (if any). |

`use.tilde` |
Logical, use '~' for negation with bivalent variables. |

`x` |
An object of class 'DeMorgan'. |

The two De Morgan laws posit that the negation of a disjunction is the conjunction of its separate negations, and the negation of a conjunction is the disjunction of its separate negations (Hohn 1966, p.80).

The argument `expression`

can be any complex string representing a
Boolean expression of disjunctions and conjunctions, or a solution object of
class 'qca' (objects returned by the '`eQMC`

' function).

A list of solutions with their negations as components if `expression`

is an object of class 'qca', or simply a list with the following components
if `expression`

is a string:

`initial` |
The initial expression. |

`negated` |
The negation of the initial expression. |

Dusa, Adrian | : development, programming, testing |

Thiem, Alrik | : development, documentation, testing |

Alrik Thiem (Personal Website; ResearchGate Website)

Hohn, Franz E. 1966. *Applied Boolean Algebra: An Elementary Introduction*.
2nd ed. New York: Macmillan.

Ragin, Charles C. 1987. *The Comparative Method: Moving beyond Qualitative
and Quantitative Strategies*. Berkeley: University of California Press.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 | ```
# example from Ragin (1987, p.99)
DeMorgan("AC + B~C")
# with different AND-operators
DeMorgan("A*C + B*~C", and.split = "*")
DeMorgan("A&C + B&~C", and.split = "&")
# use solution object of class 'qca' returned by 'eQMC' function,
# even with multiple models
data(d.represent)
KRO.ps <- eQMC(d.represent, outcome = "WNP")
DeMorgan(KRO.ps)
``` |

```
Please cite the 'QCApro' package as follows:
Thiem, Alrik. 2016. Professional Functionality for Performing and
Evaluating Qualitative Comparative Analysis. R Package Version 1.1-1.
URL: http://www.alrik-thiem.net/software/.
A BibTeX entry can be generated by:
citation(package = "QCApro")
All improvements and bug fixes on the predecessor package QCA 1.1-4
as well as all internal package changes can be browsed by:
news(package = "QCApro")
NOTE: As some function and object names currently overlap with the QCAGUI
package, you should work with only either QCApro or QCAGUI within one R session.
S1: AC + B~C
N1: ~A~B + ~AC + ~B~C
S1: A*C + B*~C
N1: ~A*~B + ~A*C + ~B*~C
S1: A&C + B&~C
N1: ~A&~B + ~A&C + ~B&~C
S1: WS + ES*WM + QU*LP + es*LP
N1: es*lp*ws + ES*qu*wm*ws + lp*wm*ws
S2: WS + ES*WM + QU*LP + WM*LP
N2: es*lp*ws + qu*wm*ws + lp*wm*ws
```

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