Description Implemented coordinate systems Transformations between the system Options References See Also Examples
Implemented Coordinate Systems.
Cartesian coordinate system
Earth coordinate systems
The earth is considered as an ellipsoid;
The first angle takes values in [0, 360),
the second angle takes values in [90, 90].
Spherical coordinate systems
The earth is considered as an ellipsoid;
The first angle takes values in [0, 2π),
the second angle takes values in [π/2, π/2].
Earth to cartesian
The 3dimensional resulting coordinates
are either given in ‘km’ or in ‘miles’.
Gnomonic and orthographic projections
The 2dimensional resulting coordinates
are either given in ‘km’ or in ‘miles’.
The projection direction is given by the zenit
.
Earth to spherical
In this case the Earth is considered as a ball.
Cartesian systems cannot be transformed to earth or spherical coordinate systems, nor a spherical system to earth coordinates.
coord_system
character.
One of the values "auto"
, "cartesian"
, "earth"
If "auto"
, then the coordinates are considered as
"cartesian"
except the names of the given coordinates
indicate a
different system. Currently, only "longitude"
and
"latidute"
(or abbreviations of them) are excepted
as names for given coordinates
and indicate an earth coordinate systems. See the examples below.
Default: "auto"
coordidx
integer vector of column numbers of the variables in
the data frame. varidx
can be set alternatively to
coordnames
.
This parameter gives the coordinate columns in a data frame
by starting column and ending column or the sequence.
An NA
in the second component means
‘until the end’.
coordnames
vector of characters that can be set
alternatively to coordidx.
This parameter gives the coordinate columns in a data frame by names.
If it is "NA"
, then, depending on the context, either
an error message is returned or it is assumed that the first
columns give the coordinates.
coordunits
any string.
If coordinate_system = "earth"
and longitude and latitude
are transformed to 3d cartesian coordinates, coordunits
determines
whether the radius is given in kilometers ("km"
) or miles
("miles"
).
If empty, then "km"
is chosen.
Default: ""
new_coord_system
One of the values "keep"
, "cartesian"
, "earth"
,
"plane"
.
"keep"
The coord_system
is kept (except an explicit transformation
is given, see RMtrafo
.
Note that some classes of models, e.g. completely monotone functions and compactly supported covariance models with range less than π are valid models on a sphere. In this case the models are considered as models on the sphere. See spherical models for lists.
"cartesian"
If coord_system
is "earth"
the coordinates are transformed
to cartesian coordinates before any model is considered.
"orthographic"
, "genomic"
If coord_system
is "earth"
the locations are projected
to a plane before any
model is considered.
Default: "keep"
new_coordunits
internal and should not be set by the user.
Default: ""
polar_coord
logical.
If FALSE
the spherical coordinates agree with
the earth coordinate parametrization, except that
radians are used for spherical coordinates instead
of degrees for the earth coordinates.
If TRUE
the spherical coordinates signify polar coordinates.
Default : FALSE
varidx
integer vector of length 2.
varidx
can be set alternatively to
varnames
.
This parameter gives the data columns in a data frame, either
by starting column and ending column.
An NA
in the second component means
‘until the end’.
varnames
vector of characters that can be set
alternatively to varidx
. This parameter gives
the data columns in a data frame by names.
if varnames
equals "NA"
then for keywords ‘data’,
‘value’ and ‘variable’ will be searched for keywords.
If none of them are found, depending on the context, either
an error message is returned or it is assumed that the last
columns give the data.
varunits
vector of characters. The default units of the variables.
Default: ""
xyz_notation
logical or NA
. Used by
RMuser
only.
NA
: automatic choice (if possible)
FALSE
: notation (x, y) should not be understood as kernel definition, not as xyz notation
TRUE
: xyz notation used
zenit
two angles of the central projection direction for the gnomonic projection (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gnomonic_projection, http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gnomonische_Projektion) and the orthographic projection, (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orthographic_projection_in_cartography, http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orthografische_Azimutalprojektion).
If any(is.na(zenit))
then either the value of either of the components may not be NA
,
whose value will be denoted by p.
If p=1 then the mean of the locations is calculated; if p=Inf then the mean of the range is calculated.
Default: c(1, NA)
Covariance models in a cartesian system
Schlather, M. (2011) Construction of covariance functions and unconditional simulation of random fields. In Porcu, E., Montero, J.M. and Schlather, M., SpaceTime Processes and Challenges Related to Environmental Problems. New York: Springer.
Covariance models on a sphere
Gneiting, T. (2013) Strictly and nonstrictly positive definite functions on spheres. Bernoulli, 19, 13271349.
Tail correlation function
Strokorb, K., Ballani, F., and Schlather, M. (2014) Tail correlation functions of maxstable processes: Construction principles, recovery and diversity of some mixing maxstable processes with identical TCF. Extremes, Submitted.
RMtrafo
,
RFearth2cartesian
,
RPdirect
,
models valid on a sphere
,
RFoptions
.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57  RFoptions(seed=0) ## *ANY* simulation will have the random seed 0; set
## RFoptions(seed=NA) to make them all random again
z < 1:4
x < cbind(z, 0)
y < cbind(0, z)
model < RMwhittle(nu=0.5)
RFcov(model, x, y, grid=FALSE) ## standard is (cartesian) model
## same as above, but explicit:
RFcov(model, x, y, grid=FALSE, coord_sys="cartesian")
## model is not valid on a sphere; x,y coordinates are
## transformed from earth coordinates to spherical coordinates
RFcov(model, x, y, grid=FALSE, coord_sys="earth")
## now the scale is chosen such that the covariance
## values are comparable to those in the cartesian case
RFcov(RMS(model, s= 1 / 180 * pi), x, y, grid=FALSE,
coord_sys="earth")
## projection onto a plane first. Then the scale is interpreted
## in the usual, i.e. cartesian, sense, i.e. the model does not
## really make sense
RFoptions(zenit = c(2.5, 2.5))
RFcov(model, x, y, grid=FALSE,
coord_sys="earth", new_coord_sys="orthographic")
## again, here the scale is chosen to be comparable to the cartesian case
## here the (standard) units are [km]
(z1 < RFcov(RMS(model, s= 6350 / 180 * pi), x, y, grid=FALSE,
coord_sys="earth", new_coord_sys="orthographic"))
## as above, but in miles
(z2 < RFcov(RMS(model, s= 6350 / 1.609344 / 180 * pi), x, y, grid=FALSE,
coord_sys="earth", new_coord_sys="orthographic",
new_coordunits="miles"))
stopifnot(all.equal(z1, z2))
## again, projection onto a plane first, but now using the
## gnomonic projection
## here the (standard) units are [km]
(z1 < RFcov(RMS(model, s= 6350 / 180 * pi), x, y, grid=FALSE,
coord_sys="earth", new_coord_sys="gnomonic"))
## as above, but in miles
(z2 < RFcov(RMS(model, s= 6350 / 1.609344 / 180 * pi), x, y, grid=FALSE,
coord_sys="earth", new_coord_sys="gnomonic",
new_coordunits="miles"))
stopifnot(all.equal(z1, z2, tol=1e5))

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