HIV and Circumcision


Researchers in Kenya identified a cohort of more that 1,000 prostitutes who were known to be a major reservoir of sexually transmitted diseases in 1985. It was determined that more than 85% of them were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in February, 1986. The researchers identified men who acquired a sexually-transmitted disease from this group of women after the men sought treatment at a free clinic. The data frame contains data on the subset of those men who did not test positive for HIV on their first visit and who agreed to participate in the study. The men are categorised according to whether they later tested positive for HIV during the study period, whether they had one or multiple sexual contacts with the prostitutes and whether they were circumcised.




A data frame with 4 observations on the following 5 variables.


Whether men had single or multiple contact with prostitutes


Whether the men are circumcised, factor with levels "no" and "yes"


Number of men that tested positive for HIV


Number of men


Number of men that did not test positive for HIV (should be Number-HIV)


Ramsey, F.L. and Schafer, D.W. (2002). The Statistical Sleuth: A Course in Methods of Data Analysis (2nd ed), Duxbury.


Cameron, D.W., D'Costa, L.J., Maitha, G.M., Cheang, M., Piot, P., Simonsen, J.N., Ronald, A.R., Gakinya, M.N., Ndinya-Achola, J.O., Brunham, R.C. and Plummer, F. A. (1989). Female to Male Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I: Risk Factors for Seroconversion in Men, The Lancet 334(8660): 403–407.



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