Younger Neolithic Pottery from Central Europe

Description

A sites by types table of abundance data on vessel types in archaeological features of the Younger Neolithic Michelsberg Culture from Belgium, France and Germany by Birgit Höhn (2002).

Usage

1

Format

A data frame with 109 observations on the following 42 variables. Each line represents one feature. Some categorical variables are not converted to factors.

id

Unique identifier (categorical, integer)

site_name

Name of site (categorical, character)

catalogue_nr

Number in catalogue of Höhn (2002) (categorical, integer)

feature_nr

Number of the archaeological feature (categorical, numeric)

to3

Pot/vessel type 3 count

f4

Bottle type 4 count

b2

Beaker type 2 count

to2

Pot/vessel type 2 count

b3

Beaker type 3 count

b7

Beaker type 7 count

kw5

Carinated bowl type 5 count

vg1

Storage vessel type 1 count

vg2

Storage vessel type 2 count

t4a

Tulip beaker type 4a count

kw2

Carinated bowl type 2 count

kw4

Carinated bowl type 4 count

b5

Beaker type 5 count

t3b

Tulip beaker type 3b count

f3

Bottle type 3 count

kw3

Carinated bowl type 3 count

kw1

Carinated bowl type 1 count

b6

Beaker type 6 count

to1

Pot/vessel type 1 count

b1

Beaker type 1 count

t3a

Tulip beaker type 3a count

vg4

Storage vessel type 4 count

ks2

Conical bowl type 2 count

ks1

Conical bowl type 1 count

t2b

Tulip beaker type 2b count

f2

Bottle type 2 count

bs3

Globular bowl type 3 count

t2a

Tulip beaker type 2a count

bs2

Globular bowl type 2 count

b4

Beaker type 4 count

bs1

Globular bowl type 1 count

f1

Bottle type 1 count

t1b

Tulip beaker type 1b count

vg3

Storage vessel type 3 count

t1a

Tulip beaker type 1a count

mbk_phase

MBK phase according to Lüning (1967) as an ordered factor with levels I < I/II < II < II/III < III < III-V < III/IV < IV < IV/V < Munz < V

x_utm32n

x coordinate in m; projection UTM WGS 84, zone 32 nord

y_utm32n

y coordinate in m; projection UTM WGS 84, zone 32 nord

Details

Höhn (2002) recorded pottery vessel shapes from 108 archaeological features (pits, ditches etc.) from 69 sites of the Central European Younger Neolithic Michelsberg Culture (MBK; 4350-3500 BC) following Lüning's (1967) typology. Her correspondence analysis of the abundance data (columns 5 to 39) exhibits a pronounced Guttman effect or arch, suggesting the data set is structured by a time gradient. Recently Mischka et al. (2015) projected an 109th Michelsberg assemblage, Flintbek LA48, a pit with Michelsberg pottery from a North German site of the Funnel Beaker Culture (TRB), as a supplementary row into the existing chronology thereby connecting the relative chronologies of TRB and MBK. The data frame contains as attributes the references for the data, a typological key and the map projection. Note that ambiguous fragments of conical bowls (ks1 and ks2) are assigned as 0.5 to each of the two types resulting also in positive entries suitable to analysis by CA.

Source

Höhn, B. 2002. Die Michelsberger Kultur in der Wetterau. Universitätsforschungen zur prähistorischen Archäologie 87. Bonn: Habelt.

Mischka, D., Roth, G. and K. Struckmeyer 2015. Michelsberg and Oxie in contact next to the Baltic Sea. In: Neolithic Diversities. Perspectives from a conference in Lund, Sweden. Acta Archaeologica Lundensia Ser. 8, No. 65, edited by Kr. Brink et al., pp 241–250.

Lüning, J. 1967. Die Michelsberger Kultur: Ihre Funde in zeitlicher und räumlicher Gliederung. Berichte der Römisch-Germanischen Kommission 48, 1-350.

Examples

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data(Michelsberg)
str(Michelsberg)
names(Michelsberg)[5:39]
attributes(Michelsberg)$typological_key
library(ca)

# geographical distribution
xy <- as.matrix(Michelsberg[,41:42])/1000
plot(xy, asp=1, pch=16, col=rgb(.3,.3,.3,.5))
text(xy[,1], xy[,2], Michelsberg$id, cex=.7, pos=2)
# Note site 109 to the Northeast; 

# preparing the data set for CA
abu <- Michelsberg[, 5:39]
rownames(abu) <- Michelsberg$id

# CA with site 109, Flintbek LA48, as supplementary row
MBK.ca <- ca(abu, ndim=min(dim(abu)-1), suprow=109 )

# asymmetric biplot with row quality and column contribution
plot(MBK.ca, map="rowprincipal", contrib=c("relative", "absolute"))

title(main="Row-isometric Biplot of Michelsberg CA", cex.sub=.7, 
     sub="color intensity represents quality for sites and contributions for types")
# The arch is a curved trend in 3D; zoom with mouse scroll
library(rgl)
plot3d(MBK.ca, map="rowprincipal", labels=c(0,0))

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