R/mixingm.R

Defines functions mixingdf.igraph mixingdf.table mixingdf full_mm valid_mm mixingm.igraph mixingm

Documented in mixingdf mixingdf.igraph mixingdf.table mixingm mixingm.igraph

#' Network mixing matrix
#'
#' Creating network mixing matrices ([mixingm()]) and data frames ([mixingdf()]).
#'
#' Network mixing matrix is, traditionally, a two-dimensional
#' cross-classification of edges depending on the values of a specified vertex
#' attribute for tie sender and tie receiver. It is an important tool
#' for assessing network homophily or segregation.
#'
#' Let \eqn{G} be the number of distinct values of the vertex attribute in
#' question.  We may say that we have \eqn{G} mutually exclusive groups in the
#' network.  The mixing matrix is a \eqn{G \times G}{GxG} matrix such that
#' \eqn{m_{ij}}{m[ij]} is the number of ties send by vertices in group \eqn{i}
#' to vertices in group \eqn{j}. The diagonal of that matrix is of special
#' interest as, say, \eqn{m_{ii}}{m[ii]} is the number of ties *within*
#' group \eqn{i}.
#'
#' A full mixing matrix is a three-dimensional array that cross-classifies
#' *all* network *dyads* depending on:
#'
#' 1. the value of the vertex attribute for tie sender
#' 2. the value of the vertex attribute for tie receiver
#' 3. the status of the dyad, i.e. whether it is connected or not
#'
#' The two-dimensional version is a so-called "contact layer"
#' of the three-dimensional version.
#'
#' @param object R object, see Details for available methods
#' @param ... other arguments passed to/from other methods
#'
#' @return Function [mixingm()], depending on `full` argument, a two- or
#'   three-dimensional array crossclassifying connected or all dyads in
#'   `object`. For undirected network and if `foldit` is `TRUE` (default), the
#'   matrix is folded onto the upper triangle (entries in lower triangle are 0).
#'
#' @export
#' @examples
#' if(requireNamespace("igraph", quietly = TRUE)) {
#'   # some directed network
#'   net <- igraph::make_graph(c(1,2, 1,3, 2,3,  4,5,  1,4, 1,5, 4,2, 5,3))
#'   igraph::V(net)$type <- c(1,1,1, 2,2)
#'   mixingm(net, "type")
#'   mixingm(net, "type", full=TRUE)
#'   # as undirected
#'   mixingm( igraph::as.undirected(net), "type")
#'   mixingm(net, "type")
#'   mixingm(net, "type", full=TRUE)
#' }
mixingm <- function(object, ...) UseMethod("mixingm")






#' @rdname mixingm
#' @details If `object` is of class "igraph," mixing matrix is created for the
#'   network in `object` based on vertex attributes supplied in arguments
#'   `rattr` and optionally `cattr`.
#'
#'   If only `rattr` is specified (or, equivalently, `rattr` and `cattr` are
#'   identical), the result will be a mixing matrix \eqn{G \times G} if `full`
#'   is `FALSE` or \eqn{G \times G \times 2}{GxGx2} if `full` is `TRUE`. Where
#'   \eqn{G} is the number of categories of vertex attribute specified by
#'   `rattr`.
#'
#'   If `rattr` and `cattr` can be used to specify different vertex attributes
#'   for tie sender and tie receiver.
#'
#' @param rattr name of the vertex attribute or an attribute itself as a vector.
#'   If `cattr` is not `NULL`, `rattr` is used for rows of the resulting mixing
#'   matrix.
#' @param cattr name of the vertex attribute or an attribute itself as a vector.
#'   If supplied, used for columns in the mixing matrix.
#' @param full logical, whether two- or three-dimensional mixing matrix should
#'   be returned.
#' @param directed logical, whether the network is directed. By default,
#'   directedness of the network is determined with [igraph::is_directed()].
#' @param loops logical, whether loops are allowed. By default it is `TRUE`
#'   whenever there is at least one loop in `object`.
#'
#' @importFrom igraph is.directed is.loop vcount
#'
#' @export
mixingm.igraph <- function(object, rattr, cattr=rattr, full=FALSE,
                            directed = is.directed(object),
                            loops=any(is.loop(object)), ...)
{
  if(igraph::any_multiple(object) && full) {
    stop(paste(
      "don't know how to compute mixing matrix for a multigraph",
      "perhaps you should use `simplify()` to drop multiple edges?",
      sep = "\n"
    ))
  }
  # get attributes
  if( is.character(rattr) && length(rattr)==1 )
  {
    ra <- igraph::get.vertex.attribute(object, rattr)
  } else
  {
    stopifnot( length(rattr) == vcount(object))
    ra <- rattr
  }
  if( is.character(cattr) && length(cattr)==1 )
  {
    ca <- igraph::get.vertex.attribute(object, cattr)
  } else
  {
    stopifnot( length(cattr) == vcount(object))
    ca <- cattr
  }
  # compute contact layer based on edge list
  el <- igraph::get.edgelist(object, names=FALSE)
  ego <- factor( ra[ el[,1] ], levels=sort(unique(ra)))
  alter <- factor(ca[ el[,2] ], levels=sort(unique(ca)))
  con <- table(ego=ego, alter=alter)
  if(!directed) con <- fold(con, "upper")
  if(full)
  {
    return(full_mm(con, gsizes=table(ra, ca), directed=directed, loops=loops))
  } else
  {
    return(con)
  }
}


# Does it look like a valid mm
valid_mm <- function(m, square=TRUE, verbose=FALSE)
  # square = should m be square
{
  rval <- NULL
  if( !is.array(m) )
  {
    rval <- "'m' is not an array"
    stop(rval)
  }
  dims <- dim(m)
  if( !(length(dims) %in% 2:3) )
    rval <- c(rval, paste0("'m' should have 2 or 3 dimensions, has ", length(dims)))
  if( length(dims) == 3 && dims[3] != 2 )
    rval <- c(rval, paste0("third dimension should have two values, has ", dims[3]))
  if(square)
  {
    if( dims[1] != dims[2] )
      rval <- c(rval, paste0("dimensions 1 and 2 should be equal, are ", dims[1],
                             " and ", dims[2]) )
  }
  if(is.null(rval)) return(TRUE)
  if(verbose) return(rval)
  else return(FALSE)
}









# Create a 3-dimensional mixingm matrix
#
# Given contact layer of the mixing matrix compute a full 3-dimensional mixing
# matrix by rebuilding the non-contact layer from supplied group sizes and
# other arguments.
#
# @param cl numeric matrix with contact layer of the mixing matrix
# @param gsizes numeric vector or matrix with group sizes, see Details.
# @param directed logical, whether the network is directed
# @param loops logical, whether loops (self-ties) are allowed
#
# Contact layer of the mixing matrix is a cross-classification of ties
# according to the attributes of tie sender (ego) and tie receiver (alter).
# Classically, the same attribute is used for ego and alter resulting in a
# square mixing matrix. In such cases \code{cl} shoud be square with \code{cl[i,j]} being
# the number of ties from actors in group \code{i} to actors in group \code{j}
# and \code{gsizes} should be a numeric vector with number of nodes in each group.
# Consequently, it must hold that \code{length(gsizes) == nrow(cl) == ncol(cl)}.
#
# In more general case we can use different node attributes for ego and
# alter. Then \code{cl} does not have to be square. In such cases
# \code{gsizes} should be a cross-tabulation of nodes according to
# their values on both attributes. See Examples.
#
# @return
# \code{full_mm} returns a full three-dimenstional mixing matrix as an array
# with \code{dim} attribute equal to \code{c( nrow(cl), ncol(cl), 2 )}.


full_mm <- function(cl, gsizes, directed=TRUE, loops=FALSE)
{
  # if 3d and dims ok, return cl
  if( length(dim(cl)) == 3 )
  {
    stopifnot(dim(cl)[3] == 2)
    return(cl)
  }
  ## Compute ego-alter margin
  gsizes <- as.table(gsizes)
  ndims <- length(dim(gsizes))
  stopifnot( ndims %in% 1:2 )
  if( ndims == 1)
  {
    gs <- gsizes
  } else
  {
    dtab <- as.data.frame(as.table(gsizes))
    gs <- dtab$Freq
  }
  o <- outer(gs, gs, "*")
  # Adjust 'o' according to 'loops' and 'directed'
  if(directed)
  {
    mar <- o
    if(!loops)
    {
      diag(mar) <- diag(o) - gs
    }
  } else {
    mar <- o
    mar[ lower.tri(mar) ] <- 0
    if(loops)
    {
      diag(mar) <- (diag(o) + gs) / 2
    } else {
      diag(mar) <- (diag(o) - gs) / 2
    }
  }
  # collapse if different groups
  if( ndims == 2 )
  {
    a1 <- apply(mar, 1, function(r) tapply(r, dtab[,2], sum))
    mar <- apply(a1, 1, function(k) tapply(k, dtab[,1], sum))
  }
  rval <- array(NA, dim=c( dim(cl), 2 ))
  rval[,,1] <- mar - cl
  rval[,,2] <- cl
  # set dimension names
  if(is.null(dimnames(cl)))
  {
    dimnames(rval) <- list(NULL, NULL, tie=c(FALSE, TRUE))
  } else
  {
    dimnames(rval) <- c( dimnames(cl)[1:2], list(tie=c(FALSE, TRUE)))
  }
  rval
}










#' @rdname mixingm
#'
#' @return Function [mixingdf()] returns non-zero entries of a mixing matrix (as
#'   returned by [mixingm()]), but organized in a data frame with columns:
#'
#'   - `ego`, `alter` -- group membership of ego an alter
#'   - `tie` -- present only if `full=TRUE`, with `TRUE` or `FALSE` for connected
#' and disconnected dyads respectively
#'   - `n` -- counts
#'
#' @export

mixingdf <- function(object, ...) UseMethod("mixingdf")

#' @rdname mixingm
#' @export
mixingdf.table <- function(object, ...) {
  rval <- expand.grid(dimnames(object), stringsAsFactors = FALSE)
  rval$n <- as.vector(object)
  subset(rval, rval$n != 0)
}

#' @rdname mixingm
#' @export
mixingdf.igraph <- function(object, ...) {
  mm <- mixingm(object, ...)
  mixingdf.table(as.table(mm))
}

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netseg documentation built on Feb. 17, 2021, 9:06 a.m.