read.ctd.sbe: Read a Seabird CTD File

Description Usage Arguments Details Value A note on sampling times A note on scales Author(s) References See Also Examples

View source: R/ctd.sbe.R


Read a Seabird CTD File


read.ctd.sbe(file, columns = NULL, station = NULL, missingValue,
  monitor = FALSE, debug = getOption("oceDebug"), processingLog, ...)



A connection or a character string giving the name of the file to load. For read.ctd.sbe() and read.ctd.woce(), this may be a wildcard (e.g. "*.cnv" or "*.csv") in which case the return value is a vector containing CTD objects created by reading the files from list.files with pattern set to the specified wildcard pattern.


An optional list that can be used to convert unrecognized data names to resultant variable names. This is used only by read.ctd.sbe and read.ctd.odf; see “Examples”.


Optional character string containing an identifying name or number for the station. This can be useful if the routine cannot determine the name automatically, or if another name is preferred.


Optional missing-value flag; data matching this value will be set to NA upon reading. If this is provided, then it overrules any missing-value flag found in the data. For Seabird (.cnv) files, there is usually no need to set missingValue, because it can be inferred from the header (typically as -9.990e-29). Set missingValue=NULL to turn off missing-value detection, even in .cnv files that contain missing-value codes in their headers. If missingValue is not specified, then an attempt is made to infer such a value from the data, by testing whether salinity and/or temperature has a minimum that is under -8 in value; this should catch common values in files, without false positives. A warning will be issued in this case, and a note inserted in the processing log of the return value.


Boolean, set to TRUE to provide an indication of progress. This is useful if filename is a wildcard.


An integer specifying whether debugging information is to be printed during the processing. This is a general parameter that is used by many oce functions. Generally, setting debug=0 turns off the printing, while higher values suggest that more information be printed.


If provided, the action item to be stored in the log. This is typically only provided for internal calls; the default that it provides is better for normal calls by a user.


additional arguments, passed to called routines.


This function reads files stored in Seabird .cnv format. Note that these files can contain multiple sensors for a given field. For example, the file might contain a column named t090C for one temperature sensor and t190C for a second. The first will be denoted temperature in the data slot of the return value, and the second will be denoted temperature1. This means that the first sensor will be used in any future processing that accesses temperature. This is for convenience of processing, and it does not pose a limitation, because the data from the second sensor are also available as e.g. x[["temperature1"]], where x is the name of the returned value. For the details of the mapping from .cnv names to ctd names, see cnvName2oceName.

The original data names as stored in file are stored within the metadata slot as dataNamesOriginal, and are displayed with summary alongside the numerical summary. See the Appendix VI of [2] for the meanings of these names (in the "Short Name" column of the table spanning pages 161 through 172).


An object of ctd-class. The details of the contents depend on the source file. The metadata slot is particularly variable across data formats, because the meta-information provided in those formats varies widely.

A note on sampling times

SBE files can be somewhat confusing as regards the time of measurement. If the data file contains metadata item called start_time, then it is converted to a POSIX time object by read.ctd.sbe and stored within the metadata slot as "startTime". Until 2018-07-05, that value was also stored in a metadata item named "time", but this caused confusion for data files that also have an elapsed-time column, and so an entry named "time" is no longer stored in the metadata slot, for those cases in which an elapsed-time column exists in the data file. Importantly, there is a possibility for confusion in the storage of that elapsed-time entry within the data slot, because read.ctd.sbe renames all of the ten variants of elapsed time (see [2] for a list) as, simply, "time" in the data slot of the returned value. (Numerical suffices will be used if the file contains multiple elapsed-time columns.) This imposes upon the user the burden of using summary() on the return value, to discover the original name of the elapsed time column, because read.ctd.sbe does not convert the 10 possible units to a standard, but rather simply records the numerical values that are in the data file. The most common column name is likely timeS, for elapsed time in seconds; see [2] for the meanings of the other 9 schemes.

A note on scales

The user might encounter data files with a variety of scales for temperature and salinity. Oce keeps track of these scales in the units it sets up for the stored variables. For example, if A is a CTD object, then A[["temperatureUnit"]]$scale is a character string that will indicate the scale. Modern-day data will have "ITS-90" for that scale, and old data may have "IPTS-68". The point of saving the scale in this way is so that the various formulas that deal with water properties can account for the scale, e.g. converting from numerical values saved on the "IPTS-68" scale to the newer scale, using T90fromT68 before doing calculations that are expressed in terms of the "ITS-90" scale. This is taken care of by retrieving temperatures with the accessor function, e.g. writing A[["temperature"]] will either retrieve the stored values (if the scale is ITS-90) or converted values (if the scale is IPTS-68). Even though this procedure should work, users who really care about the details of their data are well-advised to do a couple of tests after examining the first data line of their data file in an editor. Note that reading a file that contains IPTS-68 temperatures produces a warning.


Dan Kelley


1. The Sea-Bird SBE 19plus profiler is described at Some more information is given in the Sea-Bird data-processing manual (next item).

2. A SBE data processing manual was once at, but as of summer 2018, this no longer seems to be provided by SeaBird. A web search will turn up copies of the manual that have been put online by various research groups and data-archiving agencies. As of 2018-07-05, the latest version was named SBEDataProcessing_7.26.4.pdf and had release date 12/08/2017, and this was the reference version used in coding oce.

See Also

Other things related to ctd data: [[,ctd-method, [[<-,ctd-method, as.ctd, cnvName2oceName, ctd-class, ctdDecimate, ctdFindProfiles, ctdRaw, ctdTrim, ctd, handleFlags,ctd-method, initialize,ctd-method, initializeFlagScheme,ctd-method, oceNames2whpNames, oceUnits2whpUnits, plot,ctd-method, plotProfile, plotScan, plotTS, read.ctd.itp, read.ctd.odf, read.ctd.woce.other, read.ctd.woce, read.ctd, setFlags,ctd-method, subset,ctd-method, summary,ctd-method, woceNames2oceNames, woceUnit2oceUnit, write.ctd


f <- system.file("extdata", "ctd.cnv", package="oce")
## Read the file in the normal way
d <- read.ctd(f)
## Read an imaginary file, in which salinity is named 'salt'
d <- read.ctd(f, columns=list(
  salinity=list(name="salt", unit=list(expression(), scale="PSS-78"))))

oce documentation built on Oct. 4, 2018, 5:04 p.m.