add_max_targets_met_objective: Add maximum targets met objective

View source: R/add_max_targets_met_objective.R

add_max_targets_met_objectiveR Documentation

Add maximum targets met objective


Set the objective of a project prioritization problem() to maximize the total number of persistence targets met for the features, whilst ensuring that the cost of the solution is within a pre-specified budget (Chades et al. 2015). In some project prioritization exercises, decision makers may have a target level of persistence for each feature (e.g. a 90% persistence target corresponding to a 90% chance for the features persisting into the future). In such exercises, the decision makers do not perceive any benefit when a target is not met (e.g. if a feature has a persistence target of 90% and a solution only secures a 70% chance of persistence then no benefit is accrued for that feature) or when a target is surpassed (e.g. if a feature has a persistence target of 50%, then a solution which secures a 95% chance of persistence will accrue the same benefit as a solution which secures a 50% chance of persistence). Furthermore, weights can also be used to specify the relative importance of meeting targets for specific features (see add_feature_weights()).


add_max_targets_met_objective(x, budget)



ProjectProblem object.


numeric budget for funding actions.


A problem objective is used to specify the overall goal of the project prioritization problem. Here, the maximum targets met objective seeks to find the set of actions that maximizes the total number of features (e.g. populations, species, ecosystems) that have met their persistence targets within a pre-specified budget. Let I represent the set of conservation actions (indexed by i). Let C_i denote the cost for funding action i, and let m denote the maximum expenditure (i.e. the budget). Also, let F represent each feature (indexed by f), W_f represent the weight for each feature f (defaults to one for each feature unless specified otherwise), T_f represent the persistence target for each feature f, and E_f denote the probability that each feature will go extinct given the funded conservation projects.

To guide the prioritization, the conservation actions are organized into conservation projects. Let J denote the set of conservation projects (indexed by j), and let A_{ij} denote which actions i in I comprise each conservation project j in J using zeros and ones. Next, let P_j represent the probability of project j being successful if it is funded. Also, let B_{fj} denote the enhanced probability that each feature f in F associated with the project j in J will persist if all of the actions that comprise project j are funded and that project is allocated to feature f. For convenience, let Q_{fj} denote the actual probability that each f in F associated with the project j in J is expected to persist if the project is funded. If the argument to adjust_for_baseline in the problem function was set to TRUE, and this is the default behavior, then Q_{fj} = (P_j B_{fj}) + ((1 - (P_j B_{fj})) * (P_n \times B_{fn})), where n corresponds to the baseline "do nothing" project. This means that the probability of a feature persisting if a project is allocated to a feature depends on (i) the probability of the project succeeding, (ii) the probability of the feature persisting if the project does not fail, and (iii) the probability of the feature persisting even if the project fails. Otherwise, if the argument is set to FALSE, then Q_{fj} = P_{j} * B_{fj}.

The binary control variables X_i in this problem indicate whether each project i in I is funded or not. The decision variables in this problem are the Y_{j}, Z_{fj}, E_f, and G_f variables. Specifically, the binary Y_{j} variables indicate if project j is funded or not based on which actions are funded; the binary Z_{fj} variables indicate if project j is used to manage feature f or not; the semi-continuous E_f variables denote the probability that feature f will go extinct; and the G_f variables indicate if the persistence target for feature f is met.

Now that we have defined all the data and variables, we can formulate the problem. For convenience, let the symbol used to denote each set also represent its cardinality (e.g. if there are ten features, let F represent the set of ten features and also the number ten).

Maximize sum_f^F G_f W_f (eqn 1a); Subject to: sum_i^I C_i X_i <= m for all f in F (eqn 1b), G_f (1 - E_f) >= T_f for all f \in F (eqn 1c), E_f = 1 - sum_j^J Y_{fj} Q_{fj} for all f in F (eqn 1d), Z_{fj} <= Y_j for all j in J (eqn 1e), sum_j^J Z_{fj} * ceil(Q_{fj}) = 1 for all f in F (eqn 1f), A_{ij} Y_{j} <= X_{i} for all i I, j in J (eqn 1g), E_f >= 0, E_f <= 1 for all f in F (eqn 1h), G_f, X_i, Y_j, Z_{fj} in [0, 1] for all i in I, j in J, f in F (eqn 1i)

The objective (eqn 1a) is to maximize the weighted total number of the features that have their persistence targets met. Constraints (eqn 1b) calculate which persistence targets have been met. Constraint (eqn 1c) limits the maximum expenditure (i.e. ensures that the cost of the funded actions do not exceed the budget). Constraints (eqn 1d) calculate the probability that each feature will go extinct according to their allocated project. Constraints (eqn 1e) ensure that feature can only be allocated to projects that have all of their actions funded. Constraints (eqn 1f) state that each feature can only be allocated to a single project. Constraints (eqn 1g) ensure that a project cannot be funded unless all of its actions are funded. Constraints (eqns 1h) ensure that the probability variables (E_f) are bounded between zero and one. Constraints (eqns 1i) ensure that the target met (G_f), action funding (X_i), project funding (Y_j), and project allocation (Z_{fj}) variables are binary.


ProjectProblem object with the objective added to it.


Chades I, Nicol S, van Leeuwen S, Walters B, Firn J, Reeson A, Martin TG & Carwardine J (2015) Benefits of integrating complementarity into priority threat management. Conservation Biology, 29, 525–536.

See Also



# load the ggplot2 R package to customize plot

# load data
data(sim_projects, sim_features, sim_actions)

# manually adjust feature weights
sim_features$weight <- c(8, 2, 6, 3, 1)

# build problem with maximum targets met objective, a $200 budget,
# targets that require each feature to have a 20% chance of persisting into
# the future, and zero cost actions locked in
p1 <- problem(sim_projects, sim_actions, sim_features,
             "name", "success", "name", "cost", "name") %>%
      add_max_targets_met_objective(budget = 200) %>%
      add_absolute_targets(0.2) %>%
      add_locked_in_constraints(which(sim_actions$cost < 1e-5)) %>%

## Not run: 
# solve problem
s1 <- solve(p1)

# print solution

# plot solution, and add a dashed line to indicate the feature targets
# we can see the three features meet the targets under the baseline
# scenario, and the project for F5 was prioritized for funding
# so that its probability of persistence meets the target
plot(p1, s1) +
geom_hline(yintercept = 0.2, linetype = "dashed")

## End(Not run)

# build another problem that includes feature weights
p2 <- p1 %>%

## Not run: 
# solve problem
s2 <- solve(p2)

# print solution

# plot solution, and add a dashed line to indicate the feature targets
# we can see that adding weights to the problem has changed the solution
# specifically, the projects for the feature F3 is now funded
# to enhance its probability of persistence
plot(p2, s2) +
geom_hline(yintercept = 0.2, linetype = "dashed")

## End(Not run)

oppr documentation built on Sept. 8, 2022, 5:07 p.m.