# mrd_est: Multivariate Regression Discontinuity Estimation In rddapp: Regression Discontinuity Design Application

 mrd_est R Documentation

## Multivariate Regression Discontinuity Estimation

### Description

`mrd_est` estimates treatment effects in a multivariate regression discontinuity design (MRDD) with two assignment variables, including the frontier average treatment effect (`tau_MRD`) and frontier-specific effects (`tau_R` and `tau_M`) simultaneously.

### Usage

```mrd_est(
formula,
data,
subset = NULL,
cutpoint = NULL,
bw = NULL,
front.bw = NA,
m = 10,
k = 5,
kernel = "triangular",
se.type = "HC1",
cluster = NULL,
verbose = FALSE,
less = FALSE,
est.cov = FALSE,
est.itt = FALSE,
local = 0.15,
ngrid = 250,
margin = 0.03,
boot = NULL,
method = c("center", "univ", "front"),
t.design = NULL,
stop.on.error = TRUE
)
```

### Arguments

 `formula` The formula of the MRDD; a symbolic description of the model to be fitted. This is supplied in the format of `y ~ x1 + x2` for a simple sharp MRDD or `y ~ x1 + x2 | c1 + c2` for a sharp MRDD with two covariates. A fuzzy MRDD may be specified as `y ~ x1 + x2 + z` where `x1` is the first running variable, `x2` is the second running variable, and `z` is the endogenous treatment variable. Covariates are then included in the same manner as in a sharp MRDD. `data` An optional data frame containing the variables in the model. If not found in `data`, the variables are taken from `environment(formula)`. `subset` An optional vector specifying a subset of observations to be used in the fitting process. `cutpoint` A numeric vector of length 2 containing the cutpoints at which assignment to the treatment is determined. The default is c(0, 0). `bw` A vector specifying the bandwidths at which to estimate the RD for non-parametric models. Possible values are `"IK09"`, `"IK12"`, or a user-specified non-negative numeric vector containing the bandwidths at which to estimate the RD. The default is `"IK12"`. If `bw` is `"IK12"`, the bandwidth is calculated using the Imbens-Kalyanaraman 2012 method. If `bw` is `"IK09"`, the bandwidth is calculated using the Imbens-Kalyanaraman 2009 method. Then, the RD is estimated with that bandwidth, half that bandwidth, and twice that bandwidth. If only a single value is passed into the function, the RD will similarly be estimated at that bandwidth, half that bandwidth, and twice that bandwidth. `front.bw` A non-negative numeric vector of length 3 specifying the bandwidths at which to estimate the RD for each of three effects models (complete model, heterogeneous treatment model, and treatment only model) detailed in Wong, Steiner, and Cook (2013). If `NA`, `front.bw` will be determined by cross-validation. The default is `NA`. `m` A non-negative integer specifying the number of uniformly-at-random samples to draw as search candidates for `front.bw`, if `front.bw` is `NA`. The default is 10. `k` A non-negative integer specifying the number of folds for cross-validation to determine `front.bw`, if `front.bw` is `NA`. The default is 5. `kernel` A string indicating which kernel to use. Options are `"triangular"` (default and recommended), `"rectangular"`, `"epanechnikov"`, `"quartic"`, `"triweight"`, `"tricube"`, and `"cosine"`. `se.type` This specifies the robust standard error calculation method to use, from the "sandwich" package. Options are, as in `vcovHC`, `"HC3"`, `"const"`, `"HC"`, `"HC0"`, `"HC1"`, `"HC2"`, `"HC4"`, `"HC4m"`, `"HC5"`. The default is `"HC1"`. This option is overridden by `cluster`. `cluster` An optional vector of length n specifying clusters within which the errors are assumed to be correlated. This will result in reporting cluster robust SEs. This option overrides anything specified in `se.type`. It is suggested that data with a discrete running variable be clustered by each unique value of the running variable (Lee and Card, 2008). `verbose` A logical value indicating whether to print additional information to the terminal, including results of instrumental variable regression, and outputs from background regression models. The default is `FALSE`. `less` Logical. If `TRUE`, return the estimates of parametric linear and optimal bandwidth non-parametric models only. If `FALSE` return the estimates of linear, quadratic, and cubic parametric models and optimal, half and double bandwidths in non-parametric models. The default is `FALSE`. `est.cov` Logical. If `TRUE`, the estimates of covariates will be included. If `FALSE`, the estimates of covariates will not be included. The default is `FALSE`. This option is not applicable if method is `"front"`. `est.itt` Logical. If `TRUE`, the estimates of intent-to-treat (ITT) will be returned. If `FALSE`, the estimates of ITT will not be returned. The default is `FALSE`. This option is not applicable if method is `"front"`. `local` A non-negative numeric value specifying the range of neighboring points around the cutoff on the standardized scale, for each assignment variable. The default is 0.15. `ngrid` A non-negative integer specifying the number of non-zero grid points on each assignment variable, which is also the number of zero grid points on each assignment variable. The default is 250. The value used in Wong, Steiner and Cook (2013) is 2500, which may cause long computational time. `margin` A non-negative numeric value specifying the range of grid points beyond the minimum and maximum of sample points on each assignment variable. The default is 0.03. `boot` An optional non-negative integer specifying the number of bootstrap samples to obtain standard error of estimates. This argument is not optional if method is `"front"`. `method` A string specifying the method to estimate the RD effect. Options are `"center"`, `"univ"`, `"front"`, based on the centering, univariate, and frontier approaches (respectively) from Wong, Steiner, and Cook (2013). `t.design` A character vector of length 2 specifying the treatment option according to design. The first entry is for `x1` and the second entry is for `x2`. Options are `"g"` (treatment is assigned if `x1` is greater than its cutoff), `"geq"` (treatment is assigned if `x1` is greater than or equal to its cutoff), `"l"` (treatment is assigned if `x1` is less than its cutoff), and `"leq"` (treatment is assigned if `x1` is less than or equal to its cutoff). The same options are available for `x2`. `stop.on.error` A logical value indicating whether to remove bootstraps which cause error in the `integrate` function. If `TRUE`, bootstraps which cause error are removed and resampled until the specified number of bootstrap samples are acquired. If `FALSE`, bootstraps which cause error are not removed. The default is `TRUE`.

### Value

`mrd_est` returns an object of class "`mrd`". The function `summary` is used to obtain and print a summary of the estimated regression discontinuity. The object of class `mrd` is a list containing the following components for each estimated treatment effect, `tau_MRD` or `tau_R` and `tau_M`:

 `type` A string denoting either `"sharp"` or `"fuzzy"` RDD. `call` The matched call. `est` Numeric vector of the estimate of the discontinuity in the outcome under a sharp MRDD or the Wald estimator in the fuzzy MRDD, for each corresponding bandwidth, if applicable. `se` Numeric vector of the standard error for each corresponding bandwidth, if applicable. `ci` The matrix of the 95 for each corresponding bandwidth, if applicable. `bw` Numeric vector of each bandwidth used in estimation. `z` Numeric vector of the z statistic for each corresponding bandwidth, if applicable. `p` Numeric vector of the p-value for each corresponding bandwidth, if applicable. `obs` Vector of the number of observations within the corresponding bandwidth, if applicable. `cov` The names of covariates. `model` For a sharp design, a list of the `lm` objects is returned. For a fuzzy design, a list of lists is returned, each with two elements: `firststage`, the first stage `lm` object, and `iv`, the `ivreg` object. A model is returned for each parametric and non-parametric case and corresponding bandwidth. `frame` Returns the model frame used in fitting. `na.action` The observations removed from fitting due to missingness. `impute` A logical value indicating whether multiple imputation is used or not. `d` Numeric vector of the effect size (Cohen's d) for each estimate.

### References

Wong, V. C., Steiner, P. M., Cook, T. D. (2013). Analyzing regression-discontinuity designs with multiple assignment variables: A comparative study of four estimation methods. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 38(2), 107-141. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.3102/1076998611432172.

Imbens, G., Kalyanaraman, K. (2009). Optimal bandwidth choice for the regression discontinuity estimator (Working Paper No. 14726). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://www.nber.org/papers/w14726.

Imbens, G., Kalyanaraman, K. (2012). Optimal bandwidth choice for the regression discontinuity estimator. The Review of Economic Studies, 79(3), 933-959. https://academic.oup.com/restud/article/79/3/933/1533189.

Lee, D. S., Card, D. (2010). Regression discontinuity inference with specification error. Journal of Econometrics, 142(2), 655-674. doi: 10.1016/j.jeconom.2007.05.003.

Lee, D. S., Lemieux, T. (2010). Regression Discontinuity Designs in Economics. Journal of Economic Literature, 48(2), 281-355. doi: 10.1257/jel.48.2.281.

Zeileis, A. (2006). Object-oriented computation of sandwich estimators. Journal of Statistical Software, 16(9), 1-16. doi: 10.18637/jss.v016.i09

### Examples

```set.seed(12345)
x1 <- runif(1000, -1, 1)
x2 <- runif(1000, -1, 1)
cov <- rnorm(1000)
y <- 3 + 2 * (x1 >= 0) + 3 * cov + 10 * (x2 >= 0) + rnorm(1000)
# centering
mrd_est(y ~ x1 + x2 | cov, method = "center", t.design = c("geq", "geq"))
# univariate
mrd_est(y ~ x1 + x2 | cov, method = "univ", t.design = c("geq", "geq"))
# frontier
mrd_est(y ~ x1 + x2 | cov, method = "front", t.design = c("geq", "geq"))
```

rddapp documentation built on March 18, 2022, 6:39 p.m.