R/Linnorm.PCA.R

Defines functions Linnorm.PCA

Documented in Linnorm.PCA

#' Linnorm-PCA Clustering pipeline for subpopulation Analysis
#'
#' This function first performs Linnorm transformation on the dataset. Then, it will perform Principal component analysis on the dataset and use k-means clustering to identify subpopulations of cells.
#' @param datamatrix	The matrix or data frame that contains your dataset. Each row is a feature (or Gene) and each column is a sample (or replicate). Raw Counts, CPM, RPKM, FPKM or TPM are supported. Undefined values such as NA are not supported. It is not compatible with log transformed datasets.
#' @param RowSamples	Logical. In the datamatrix, if each row is a sample and each row is a feature, set this to TRUE so that you don't need to transpose it. Linnorm works slightly faster with this argument set to TRUE, but it should be negligable for smaller datasets. Defaults to FALSE.
#' @param input	Character. "Raw" or "Linnorm". In case you have already transformed your dataset with Linnorm, set input into "Linnorm" so that you can put the Linnorm transformed dataset into the "datamatrix" argument. Defaults to "Raw".
#' @param MZP Double >=0, <= 1. Minimum non-Zero Portion Threshold for this function. Genes not satisfying this threshold will be removed from the analysis. For exmaple, if set to 0.3, genes without at least 30 percent of the samples being non-zero will be removed. Defaults to 0.
#' @param DataImputation	Logical. Perform data imputation on the dataset after transformation. Defaults to TRUE.
#' @param num_PC	Integer >= 2. Number of principal componenets to be used in K-means clustering. Defaults to 3.
#' @param  num_center	Numeric vector. Number of clusters to be tested for k-means clustering. fpc, vegan, mclust and apcluster packages are used to determine the number of clusters needed. If only one number is supplied, it will be used and this test will be skipped. Defaults to c(1:20).
#' @param  Group	Character vector with length equals to sample size. Each character in this vector corresponds to each of the columns (samples) in the datamatrix. In the plot, the shape of the points that represent each sample will be indicated by their group assignment. Defaults to NULL.
#' @param Coloring	Character. "kmeans" or "Group". If Group is not NULL, coloring in the PCA plot will reflect each sample's group. Otherwise, coloring will reflect k means clustering results. Defaults to "Group".
#' @param  pca.scale	Logical. In the prcomp(for Principal component analysis) function, set the "scale." parameter. It signals the function to scale unit variances in the variables before the analysis takes place. Defaults to FALSE.
#' @param  kmeans.iter	Numeric. Number of iterations in k-means clustering. Defaults to 2000.
#' @param plot.title	Character. Set the title of the plot. Defaults to "PCA K-means clustering".
#' @param ... arguments that will be passed into Linnorm's transformation function.
#' @details  This function performs PCA clustering using Linnorm transformation.
#' @return It returns a list with the following objects:
##' \itemize{
##'  \item{k_means:}{ Output of kmeans(for K-means clustering) from the stat package. Note: It contains a "cluster" object that indicates each sample's cluster assignment.}
##'  \item{PCA:}{ Output of prcomp(for Principal component analysis) from the stat package.}
##'  \item{plot:}{ Plot of PCA clustering.}
##'  \item{Linnorm:}{ Linnorm transformed data matrix.}
##' }
#' @keywords Linnorm RNA-seq Raw Count Expression RPKM FPKM TPM CPM normalization transformation Parametric PCA Principal Component Analysis k-means K-means kmeans Clustering
#' @export
#' @examples
#' #Obtain example matrix:
#' data(Islam2011)
#' #Example:
#' PCA.results <- Linnorm.PCA(Islam2011)
Linnorm.PCA <- function(datamatrix, RowSamples = FALSE, input = "Raw", MZP = 0, DataImputation = TRUE, num_PC=3, num_center=c(1:20), Group=NULL, Coloring="kmeans", pca.scale=FALSE, kmeans.iter=2000, plot.title="PCA K-means clustering",...) {
	#PCA K-means clustering with Linnorm transformed dataset
	#Author: (Ken) Shun Hang Yip <[email protected]>
	
	message("To perform cell clustering, Linnorm.tSNE is strongly recommended. Linnorm.PCA is only provided as a reference." ,appendLF=TRUE)
	
	if (input != "Raw" && input != "Linnorm") {
		stop("input argument is not recognized.")
	}
	if (MZP > 1 || MZP < 0) {
		stop("Invalid MZP.")
	}
	if (Coloring != "Group" && Coloring != "kmeans") {
		stop("Coloring argument is not recognized.")
	}
	if (num_PC < 2) {
		stop("num_PC is too small.")
	}
	if (!is.numeric(num_center)) {
		stop("num_center must be a vector of integers.")
	}
	if (length(Group) > 0) {
		if (length(Group) != length(datamatrix[1,])) {
			stop("Group must be a vector with the same length as sample size.")
		}
	}
	if (kmeans.iter < 10) {
		stop("kmeans.iter is too small.")
	}
	if (!is.logical(RowSamples)){
		stop("Invalid RowSamples.")
	}
	if (!RowSamples) {
		datamatrix <- t(datamatrix)
	}
	if (input == "Raw") {
		#Linnorm transformation
		datamatrix <- Linnorm(datamatrix, DataImputation=DataImputation, RowSamples = TRUE, ...)
	}
	#Backup data that will be filtered, so that we can include them in the output
	Backup <- colSums(datamatrix != 0) < nrow(datamatrix) * MZP
	Backup2 <- 0
	if (sum(Backup) != 0) {
		Backup2 <-  datamatrix[,Backup]
	}
	
	#Filter zeroes based on MZP threshold
	datamatrix <- datamatrix[,colSums(datamatrix != 0) >= nrow(datamatrix) * MZP]
	
	
	#Principal Component Analysis
	res.pca <- prcomp(datamatrix, scale = pca.scale)
	
	#Extract Principal Components for k means clustering.
	data <- res.pca$x[,1:floor(num_PC)]
	
	num_clust <- c()
	if (length(num_center) == 1) {
		num_clust <- num_center
	} else {
		#Automatically determine number of centers by fpc, vegan, mclust and apcluster packages.
		#fpc
		pamk.best <- pamk(data,num_center)

		num_clust <- c(pamk.best$nc)

		#vegan
		fit <- cascadeKM(scale(data, center = TRUE,  scale = TRUE), min(num_center), max(num_center), iter = 500)
		calinski.best <- as.numeric(which.max(fit$results[2,]))

		num_clust <- c(num_clust, calinski.best)
		
		#mclust
		d_clust <- Mclust(as.matrix(data), G=num_center)
		m.best <- dim(d_clust$z)[2]
		
		num_clust <- c(num_clust, m.best)
		
		#apcluster
		d.apclus <- apcluster(negDistMat(r=2), data)
		num_clust <- c(num_clust, length(d.apclus@clusters))
		
		#Mode of num_clust
		ux <- unique(num_clust)
		if (length(ux) == 4) {
			num_clust <- sort(ux)[2]
		} else {
			num_clust <- ux[which.max(tabulate(match(num_clust, ux)))]
		}
		
		x <- list(...)
		if (sum(x$showinfo == TRUE) == 1) {
			cat("Number of clusters from the fpc package:", pamk.best$nc, "\n")
			cat("Number of clusters from the vegan package:", calinski.best, "\n")
			cat("Number of clusters from the mclust package:", m.best, "\n")
			cat("Number of clusters from the apcluster package:", length(d.apclus@clusters), "\n")
			cat("Final number of clusters:", num_clust, "\n")
		}
	}
	
	#K-means clustering	
	results <- kmeans(data, num_clust, iter.max = kmeans.iter)

	#Plotting
	PC1 <- c()
	PC2 <- c()
	Cluster <- c()
	x <- c()
	y <- c()
	
	for (i in 1:length(data[,1])) {
		PC1 <- c(PC1, data[i,1])
		PC2 <- c(PC2, data[i,2])
		Cluster <- c(Cluster, paste("Cluster",results[[1]][i] ))
	}
	
	
	
	if (length(Group) == 0) {
		plotdata <- data.frame(PC1=PC1,PC2=PC2,Cluster=Cluster)
		#Find cluster elipse
		df_ell <- data.frame()
		for(g in plotdata$Cluster){
			df_ell <- rbind(df_ell, cbind(as.data.frame(with(plotdata[plotdata$Cluster==g,], ellipse(cor(PC1, PC2),scale=c(sd(PC1),sd(PC2)),centre=c(mean(PC1),mean(PC2))))),Cluster=g))
		}

		render_plot <- ggplot_build(ggplot(plotdata, aes(x=PC1, y=PC2, color=Cluster)) + geom_point(aes(shape=Cluster), size = 2) + geom_path(data=df_ell, aes(x=x, y=y,colour=Cluster), size=0.5, linetype=2) + scale_x_continuous("PC1") + scale_y_continuous("PC2") + ggtitle(plot.title) + theme(aspect.ratio=1))
	} else {
		shaping <- c()
		numShape <- length(unique(Group))
		shapeindex <- 1
		for (i in 1:numShape) {
			if (shapeindex <= 25) {
				shaping <- c(shaping, shapeindex)
				shapeindex <- shapeindex + 1
			} else {
				shapeindex <- 1
				shaping <- c(shaping, shapeindex)
			}
		}
		if (Coloring == "kmeans") {
			plotdata <- data.frame(PC1=PC1,PC2=PC2,Cluster=Cluster,Group=Group)
			#Find cluster elipse
			df_ell <- data.frame()
			for(g in plotdata$Cluster){
				df_ell <- rbind(df_ell, cbind(as.data.frame(with(plotdata[plotdata$Cluster==g,], ellipse(cor(PC1, PC2),scale=c(sd(PC1),sd(PC2)),centre=c(mean(PC1),mean(PC2))))),Cluster=g))
			}

			render_plot <- ggplot_build(ggplot(plotdata, aes(x=PC1, y=PC2, color=Cluster)) + geom_point(aes(shape=Group), size = 2) + scale_shape_manual(values=shaping) + geom_path(data=df_ell, aes(x=x, y=y,colour=Cluster), size=0.5, linetype=2) + scale_x_continuous("PC1") + scale_y_continuous("PC2") + ggtitle(plot.title) + theme(aspect.ratio=1))
		} else if (Coloring == "Group") {
			plotdata <- data.frame(PC1=PC1,PC2=PC2,Cluster=Group,Group=Group)
			#Find cluster elipse
			df_ell <- data.frame()
			for(g in plotdata$Group){
				df_ell <- rbind(df_ell, cbind(as.data.frame(with(plotdata[plotdata$Group==g,], ellipse(cor(PC1, PC2),scale=c(sd(PC1),sd(PC2)),centre=c(mean(PC1),mean(PC2))))),Group=g))
			}

			render_plot <- ggplot_build(ggplot(plotdata, aes(x=PC1, y=PC2, color=Group)) + geom_point(aes(shape=Group), size = 2) + scale_shape_manual(values=shaping) + geom_path(data=df_ell, aes(x=x, y=y,colour=Group), size=0.5, linetype=2) + scale_x_continuous("PC1") + scale_y_continuous("PC2") + ggtitle(plot.title) + theme(aspect.ratio=1))
		}
	}
	#Reconstruct Linnorm transformed matrix
	if (sum(Backup) != 0) {
		datamatrix <- cbind(datamatrix, Backup2)
	}
	if (!RowSamples) {
		datamatrix <- t(datamatrix)
	}
	#Prepare for result output
	listing <- list(results, res.pca, render_plot, datamatrix)
	results <- setNames(listing, c("k_means", "PCA", "plot", "Linnorm"))
	return (results)
}

Try the Linnorm package in your browser

Any scripts or data that you put into this service are public.

Linnorm documentation built on Nov. 17, 2017, 11:50 a.m.