Defines functions macrocaic

Documented in macrocaic

macrocaic <- function(formula, data, phy, names.col, macroMethod = "RRD",
                      stand.contr = TRUE, robust=Inf, ref.var=NULL, node.depth=NULL,
                      macroMinSize=3, equal.branch.length=FALSE)

    # Program Flow:
    #   1) setup - check arguments, 
    #   2) use model functions to get design and response matrices, including all NA data
    #   3) feed the model matrices into a function to calculate nodal values and contrasts
    #   4) feed the returned contrast versions of the design and response matrices into lm.fit
    # TODO - return node age/height
    # TODO - allow caic to be used as a contrast calculator
    # TODO - explicit check for polytomy.brlen problems
	    # - test to see if there is a comparative data object and if not then
	    #   retrofit the remaining arguments into a comparative data object.
		if(! missing(data)){
			if(! inherits(data, 'comparative.data')){
				if(missing(names.col)) stop('names column is missing')
				names.col <- deparse(substitute(names.col))
				data <- caicStyleArgs(data=data, phy=phy, names.col=names.col, warn.dropped=TRUE)
		# extract the data and phylogeny
		cdata <- data # in case the original is needed later
		phy <- data$phy
		data <- data$data
	    # check node.depth is sensible
	    if(! is.null(node.depth)){
	        if(node.depth%%1 != 0 || node.depth < 1) stop("node.depth must be a positive integer greater than 1.")
        # check branch lengths
        if(as.logical(equal.branch.length)) {# doesn't get evaluated if FALSE or zero
            phy$edge.length <- rep(2, nrow(phy$edge))
        } else {
            if(is.null(phy$edge.length)) stop("The phylogeny does not contain branch lengths and macrocaic has not been set to use equal branch lengths.")
            if(any(phy$edge.length < 0)) stop("The phylogeny contains negative branch lengths and macrocaic has not been set to use equal branch lengths.")

	    # useful info...
	    root <- length(phy$tip.label) + 1
	    unionData <- nrow(data)
        # set intermediate branch length to use at polytomies - CAIC used 1, whereas MacroCAIC requires 0
        # in order to give subnode contrast calculation that is equivalent to a weighted mean
        crunch.brlen <- 0
        # check out the method for calculating species richness contrasts
        resp.type <- match.arg(macroMethod, c("RRD", "PDI"))

        # drop any intercept from the formula
        formula <- update(formula, . ~ . - 1) # no effect if the interecept is already omitted         
        if(is.empty.model(formula)) stop("Macrocaic requires an explanatory variable to determine the direction of species richness contrasts.\nModels of the form nSpp ~ 1 are not meaningful.")
        # Get the model frame including missing data
        # and check the number of complete cases in the model frame
        initMf <- model.frame(formula, data, na.action="na.pass")
        initMfComplete <- complete.cases(initMf)
        # TODO - think whether this check is always sufficient...
        if(sum(initMfComplete) < 2 ) stop("Fewer than two taxa contain complete data for this analysis")

        # macro analyses with missing data on species richness are a bad thing
        macroMf <- as.matrix(model.response(initMf))
        colnames(macroMf) <- with(attributes(attr(initMf, "terms")), rownames(factors)[response])
        if(any(is.na(macroMf))) stop("MacroCAIC analyses cannot have missing species richness values")
        if(any(macroMf <= 0)) stop("Species richness values cannot be negative or zero")
        if(any((macroMf %% 1) > 0)) stop("Non-integer species richness values present")
    # GET THE MODEL MATRIX and Model Response
        # get the model frame, matrix and response
        # these show the values at the tips for each term 
        mf <- model.frame(formula, data, na.action=na.pass)
        # macroCAIC is not intended to handle categorical data, but could be used
        #  to control for ordered factors where intervals are feasible equal
        # find the factors
        varClass <- attributes(attributes(mf)$terms)$dataClasses
        termFactors <- attributes(attributes(mf)$terms)$factors
        factorCols <- names(varClass)[varClass %in% c("ordered","factor")]

        if(any(varClass %in% c("ordered","factor") & rowSums(termFactors) > 1)){
                stop("Interactions using categorical variables not supported in macrocaic analyses")}
        termClass <- apply(termFactors,2,function(X) unique(varClass[as.logical(X)]))
        for(fact in factorCols){
            # - check whether all factors are ordered or binary
            currFact <- with(mf, get(fact))
            lev <-  levels(currFact)
            ord <- is.ordered(currFact)
            if(length(lev) > 2 & ! ord) stop("Unordered non-binary factor included in model formula.")
            # - modify the model frame object to make the factors numeric
            # - quote the names of the variables to assign to
            eval(parse(text=paste("mf$'", fact, "'<- as.numeric(currFact)", sep=""))) 
            attr(mf, "dataClasses") <- rep("numeric", dim(termFactors)[2])
        mr <- model.response(mf)
        # turn into a column matrix
        mr <- as.matrix(mr)
        colnames(mr) <- as.character(formula[2])

        # get the design matrix
        md <- model.matrix(formula, mf) 

        # sort out the reference variable
        if(! is.null(ref.var)){ 
            ref.var <- deparse(substitute(ref.var))
            if(is.na(match(ref.var, colnames(md)))) stop("Reference variable not found in the model predictors")
        } else {
            ref.var <- colnames(md)[1]

        # add to the design matrix - this strips the assign and contrast attributes so save...
		attrMD <- attributes(md)
        md <- cbind(mr, md)
        contr <- contrCalc(md, phy, ref.var, picMethod="crunch", crunch.brlen, macro=macroMethod)
		# the first column has been calculated as a macro contrast
        mrC <- contr$contr[,1,drop=FALSE]
        mdC <- contr$contr[,-1,drop=FALSE]

    # standardize the contrasts if required 
    # (don't standardize macro contrasts or categorical variables in Brunch)
            notCateg <- ! termClass %in% c("factor","ordered")
            mdC[,notCateg] <- mdC[,notCateg, drop=FALSE]/sqrt(contr$var.contr)
        # assemble the data into a finished contrast object

        ContrObj <- list()
        ContrObj$contr$response <- mrC
        ContrObj$contr$explanatory <- mdC

        ContrObj$nodalVals$response <-    contr$nodVal[,1,drop=FALSE]
        ContrObj$nodalVals$explanatory <- contr$nodVal[,-1,drop=FALSE]

        ContrObj$contrVar <- contr$var.contr
        ContrObj$nChild <- contr$nChild

		## need to keep the assign and contrasts attributes from the model 
		## matrix with the contrast object in order to get anova() methods to work
		## can't store assign permanently with explanatory contrasts because validNode subsetting strips attributes
		attr(ContrObj, 'assign') <- attrMD$assign
		if(! is.null(attrMD$contrasts)) attr(ContrObj, 'contrasts') <- attrMD$contrasts
        # gather the row ids of NA nodes to drop from the model (missing data plus polytomies in macro analyses)
        validNodes <- with(ContrObj$contr, complete.cases(explanatory) & complete.cases(response))
        # macrocaic can exclude species poor nodes (default is to exclude sister species pairs) 
        validNodes[which(ContrObj$nodalVal$response < macroMinSize)] <- FALSE
        # enforce any node depth requirement
        if(! is.null(node.depth)){
            validNodes[ContrObj$nodeDepth > node.depth] <- FALSE
        # save for the user
        ContrObj$validNodes <- validNodes
        # feed the contr.model.response and contr.model.matrix
        # into lm.fit to get the model and then set up the lm object
        # - need to use lm.fit here rather than calling the model on 
        #   data=contrData because any functions in the formula are now
        #   set in the column names - don't want lm to try and reinterpret
        #   them in parsing the formula.
        # - the problem then becomes how to get the model to refer to the dataset

		## need to pass the assign and contrasts attributes over from the model 
		## matrix in order to get anova() methods to work
		contrMD <-  ContrObj$contr$explanatory[validNodes,,drop=FALSE]
		contrRS <-  ContrObj$contr$response[validNodes,,drop=FALSE]

		attr(contrMD, 'assign') <- attr(ContrObj, 'assign') ## replace attributes
		if(! is.null(attr(ContrObj, 'contrasts'))) attr(contrMD, 'contrasts') <- attr(ContrObj, 'contrasts')

       mod <- with(ContrObj$contr, lm.fit(contrMD, contrRS))
       class(mod) <-  "lm"

       # assemble the output
       # return fitted model and contrasts
       RET <- list(contrast.data=ContrObj, data=cdata, mod=mod)
       class(RET) <- c("caic")
        # convert the ContrObj into a data frame...
       contrData <- with(ContrObj$contr, as.data.frame(cbind(response,explanatory)))
       contrData <- contrData[validNodes, ,drop=FALSE]
       RET$mod$call <- substitute(lm(FORM, data=contrData), list(FORM=formula))
       RET$mod$terms <- attr(mf, "terms")
       # put the model.frame in to the lm object so that predict, etc. calls work
       RET$mod$model <- contrData
       attr(RET$mod$model, "terms") <- attr(mf, "terms")

	   ## Add studentized residuals: need to use matching in case of invalid nodes
       stRes <- rstudent(mod)
       SRallNodes <- rep(NA, length(RET$contrast.data$validNodes))
       names(SRallNodes) <- names(RET$contrast.data$contrVar)
	   SRallNodes[match(names(stRes), names(SRallNodes))] <- stRes
       RET$contrast.data$studentResid <- SRallNodes
       # add some attributes
       attr(RET, "contr.method") <- "crunch"
       attr(RET, "macro.method") <- macroMethod
       attr(RET, "stand.contr")  <- stand.contr
       attr(RET, "robust") <- robust

	   # lastly, test for studentised outliers
	   if(any(stRes > robust)){
			RET <- caic.robust(RET, robust)

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caper documentation built on Sept. 26, 2023, 5:10 p.m.