The fit is done in terms of sine and cosine components at the indicated tidal frequencies, with the amplitude and phase being calculated from the resultant coefficients on the sine and cosine terms.
an optional numerical vector holding something that varies with
time. This is ignored if
an optional vector of strings that name tidal constituents to which the fit is done (see “Details” and “Constituent Naming Convention”.)
a list of constituents to be inferred from
fitted constituents according to the method outlined
in Section 2.3.4 of Foreman (1977) .
infer=list(name=c("P1","K2"), from=c("K1", "S2"), amp=c(0.33093, 0.27215), phase=c(-7.07, -22.4)
means that the amplitude of
if provided, the latitude of the observations. If not
the value of the coefficient in the Rayleigh criterion.
function to be used for regression, by default
an integer specifying whether debugging information is
to be printed during the processing. This is a general parameter that
is used by many
The tidal constituents to be used in the analysis are specified as follows; see “Constituent Naming Convention”.
Case 1. If
constituents is not provided, then the constituent
list will be made up of the 69 constituents designated by Foreman as "standard".
These include astronomical frequencies and some shallow-water frequencies,
and are as follows:
c("Z0", "SA", "SSA", "MSM", "MM", "MSF", "MF",
"ALP1", "2Q1", "SIG1", "Q1", "RHO1", "O1", "TAU1", "BET1", "NO1", "CHI1",
"PI1", "P1", "S1", "K1", "PSI1", "PHI1", "THE1", "J1", "SO1", "OO1", "UPS1",
"OQ2", "EPS2", "2N2", "MU2", "N2", "NU2", "GAM2", "H1", "M2", "H2", "MKS2",
"LDA2", "L2", "T2", "S2", "R2", "K2", "MSN2", "ETA2", "MO3", "M3", "SO3",
"MK3", "SK3", "MN4", "M4", "SN4", "MS4", "MK4", "S4", "SK4", "2MK5", "2SK5",
"2MN6", "M6", "2MS6", "2MK6", "2SM6", "MSK6", "3MK7", "M8").
Case 2. If the first item in
constituents is the string
"standard", then a provisional list is set up as in Case 1, and then
the (optional) rest of the elements of
constituents are examined, in
order. Each of these constituents is based on the name of a tidal
constituent in the Foreman (1977) notation. (To get the list, execute
data(tidedata) and then execute
named constituent is added to the existing list, if it is not already there.
But, if the constituent is preceded by a minus sign, then it is removed
from the list (if it is already there). Thus, for example,
constituents=c("standard", "-M2", "ST32") would remove the M2
constituent and add the ST32 constituent.
Case 3. If the first item is not
"standard", then the list of
constituents is processed as in Case 2, but without starting with the
standard list. As an example,
constituents=c("K1", "M2") would fit
for just the K1 and M2 components. (It would be strange to use a minus sign
to remove items from the list, but the function allows that.)
In each of the above cases, the list is reordered in frequency prior to the
analysis, so that the results of
summary,tidem-method will be in a
Once the constituent list is determined,
tidem prunes the elements of
the list by using the Rayleigh criterion, according to which two
constituents of frequencies f1 and f2 cannot be
resolved unless the time series spans a time interval of at least
tidem looks in the remaining constituent list to check
that the application of the Rayleigh criterion has not removed any of the
constituents specified directly in the
constituents argument. If
any are found to have been removed, then they are added back. This last
step was added on 2017-12-27, to make
tidem behave the same
way as the Foreman (1977) code , as illustrated in his
Appendices 7.2 and 7.3. (As an aside, his Appendix 7.3 has some errors,
e.g. the frequency for the 2SK5 constituent is listed there (p58) as
0.20844743, but it is listed as 0.2084474129 in his Appendix 7.1 (p41).
For this reason, the frequency comparison is relaxed to a
1e-7 in a portion of the oce test suite
tests/testthat/test_tidem.R in the source).
A specific example may be of help in understanding the removal of unresolvable
constitutents. For example, the
data(sealevel) dataset is of length
6718 hours, and this is too short to resolve the full list of constituents,
with the conventional (and, really, necessary) limit of
From Table 1 of , this timeseries is too short to resolve the
SA constituent, so that
SA will not be in the resultant.
Similarly, Table 2 of  dictates the removal of
PSI1 from the list. And, finally,
Table 3 of  dictates the removal of
R2. Also, since Table 3
of  indicates that
GAM2 gets subsumed into
H1 is already being deleted in this test case, then
GAM2 will also be deleted.
A list of constituent names is created by the following:
The text should include discussion of the (not yet performed) nodal correction treatment.
An object of
tidem-class, consisting of
constituent number, e.g. 1 for
the regression model
a vector of constituent
names, in non-subscript format, e.g. "
a vector of constituent frequencies, in inverse hours.
a vector of fitted constituent amplitudes, in metres.
a vector of fitted constituent phase. NOTE: The definition of phase is likely to change as this function evolves. For now, it is phase with respect to the first data sample.
a vector containing a sort of p value for each constituent. This is calculated as the average of the p values for the sine() and cosine() portions used in fitting; whether it makes any sense is an open question.
This function is not fully developed yet, and both the form of the call and the results of the calculation may change.
Nodal correction is not done.
p value may make no sense at all, and it might be
removed in a future version of this function. Perhaps a significance level
should be presented, as in the software developed by both Foreman and
tidem uses constituent names that follow the convention
set by Foreman (1977) . This convention is slightly different
from that used in the T-TIDE package of Pawlowicz et al.
(2002) , with Foreman's
MS in T-TIDE. As a convenience,
tidem converts from these T-TIDE names to the
Foreman names, issuing warnings when doing so.
tidem amplitude and phase results, obtained with
1 2 3 4 5
are identical the
T_TIDE values listed in
Table 1 of Pawlowicz et al. (2002),
after rounding amplitude and phase to 4 and 2 digits past
the decimal place, to match the format of the table.
1. Foreman, M. G. G., 1977. Manual for tidal heights analysis and prediction. Pacific Marine Science Report 77-10, Institute of Ocean Sciences, Patricia Bay, Sidney, BC, 58pp.
2. Foreman, M. G. G., Neufeld, E. T., 1991. Harmonic tidal analyses of long time series. International Hydrographic Review, 68 (1), 95-108.
3. Leffler, K. E. and D. A. Jay, 2009. Enhancing tidal harmonic analysis: Robust (hybrid) solutions. Continental Shelf Research, 29(1):78-88.
4. Pawlowicz, Rich, Bob Beardsley, and Steve Lentz, 2002. Classical tidal
harmonic analysis including error estimates in MATLAB using
Computers and Geosciences, 28, 929-937.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
library(oce) # The demonstration time series from Foreman (1977), # also used in T_TIDE (Pawlowicz, 2002). data(sealevelTuktoyaktuk) tide <- tidem(sealevelTuktoyaktuk) summary(tide) # AIC analysis extractAIC(tide[["model"]]) # Fake data at M2 t <- seq(0, 10*86400, 3600) eta <- sin(0.080511401 * t * 2 * pi / 3600) sl <- as.sealevel(eta) m <- tidem(sl) summary(m)
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