R/add_fpsim.R

Defines functions add_fpsim

Documented in add_fpsim

#' Add dyadic foreign policy similarity measures to your data
#'
#' @description
#'
#' \code{add_fpsim()} allows you to add a variety of dyadic foreign policy
#' similarity measures to your (dyad-year, leader-dyad-year) data frame
#'
#' @return
#'
#' \code{add_fpsim()} takes a (dyad-year, leader-dyad-year) data frame and
#' adds information about the dyadic foreign policy similarity, based on
#' several measures calculated and offered by Frank Haege.
#'
#' @details
#'
#' For the dyad-year (and leader-dyad-year) data, there must be some kind of
#' information loss in order to reduce the disk space data like these command.
#' In this case, all calculations are rounded to three decimal spots. I do
#' not think this to be terribly problematic, though I admit I do not like it.
#' If this is a problem for your research question (though I can't imagine it
#' would be), you may want to consider not using this function for dyad-year
#' or leader-dyad-year data.
#'
#' Be mindful that the data are fundamentally dyad-year and that extensions to
#' leader-level data should be understood as approximations for leaders-dyads
#' in a given dyad-year.
#'
#' The data this function uses are directed dyad-year and the merge is a
#' left-join, making this function agnostic about whether your dyad-year
#' (or leader-dyad-year) data are directed or non-directed.
#'
#' Haege's (2011) article reads at first glance as agnostic about which of
#' these particular measures you should consider a "preferred" or "default"
#' measure of dyadic foreign policy similarity. Indeed, the 2011
#' publication in *Political Analysis* mostly drives the point home that
#' *S* has important limitations and the multiple variants Haege calculates
#' are not substitutable. This means a user interested in measuring
#' dyadic foreign policy similarity might have to cycle through all
#' of them to assess their varying effects whereas a user interested
#' in this as just a control variable for the model can (probably)
#' get by with picking just one and not belaboring the measure
#' any further.
#'
#' ## Suggested Defaults
#'
#' An evaluation of the data, the article, and an email exchange
#' with the author leads to the following points the user should
#' consider. What follows is a rationale for why users should think of
#' kappa as a default measure for dyadic foreign policy similarity, though
#' why the "valued" equivalent for the alliance data is an inadvisable
#' default. The example at the end of the document offers the operational
#' "nudge" for what the user should want from this function.
#'
#' - The choice of measure will in part depend on the temporal
#' domain. If the user has just a post-WWII sample, the UN voting measures
#' offer better coverage. We're all partial to the alliance data, though,
#' because of its 19th century coverage.
#' - Haege implores the use of chance-corrected measures, like Cohen's (1960)
#' kappa or Scott's (1955) pi. Of the two, Haege suggests kappa over pi. The
#' rationale is the user would need to build in a very strong assumption that
#' the baseline propensity of forming a tie in the dyad is the same for
#' both members of the dyad to make Scott's (1955) pi as appropriate an estimate
#' as Cohen's (1960) kappa even as both have the important chance correction.
#' - The choice of squared versus absolute distances is arbitrary. Users
#' probably do not think about the differences, or know about the differences.
#' *S* was usually calculated with absolute differences in software packages,
#' though this was never usually belabored to the user. Comparability with *S*
#' might be an argument in favor of absolute distance as a default, but keep
#' in mind that squared distances are much more commonly used in most other
#' types of distance and association metrics.
#' - The choice of binary or valued is also a design choice for the user to
#' consider on the full merits, though the practice of valuing alliance ties
#' on a quantitative scale builds in strong assumptions about the scale of
#' alliance strength as presented in something like the Correlates of War
#' or ATOP typology. *S* has traditionally done this by default, which is
#' another reason its application in a lot of quantitative peace science
#' research is suspect.
#'
#'
#' @author Steven V. Miller
#'
#' @param data a data frame with appropriate \pkg{peacesciencer} attributes
#' @param keep an optional parameter, specified as a character vector, about
#' what dyadic foreign policy similarity measure(s) the user wants returned
#' from this function. If `keep` is not specified, the function returns all
#' 14 dyadic foreign policy similarity measures calculated by Haege (2011).
#' Otherwise, the function subsets the underlying data to just what the
#' user wants and merges in that.
#'
#' @references
#'
#' ## The Main Source of the Data
#'
#' For any use of these data whatsoever (except for Tau-b), please cite
#' Haege (2011). Data are version 2.0.
#'
#' - Haege, Frank M. 2011. "Choice or Circumstance? Adjusting Measures of
#' Foreign Policy Similarity for Chance Agreement."
#' *Political Analysis* 19(3): 287-305.
#'
#' Tau-b is calculated by me and not Haege, and no additional citation (beyond
#' citing the package) is necessary.
#'
#' ## Citations for the Particular Similarity Measure You Choose
#'
#' Additional citations depend on what particular measure of similarity you're
#' using, whether Kendall's (1938) Tau-b, Signorino and Ritter's (1999) *S*,
#' Cohen's (1960) kappa and Scott's (1955) pi. Haege (2011) is part of a chorus
#' arguing against the use of *S*, though *S* measures are included in these
#' data if you elect to ignore the chorus and use this measure. Likewise, Tau-b
#' is in here, though it is not a good measure of dyadic foreign policy
#' similarity for reasons that Signorino and Ritter (1999) mention.
#' Haege (2011) argues for a chance-corrected measure of dyadic foreign policy
#' similarity, either Cohen's (1960) kappa or Scott's (1955) pi.
#'
#' - Cohen, Jacob. 1960. "A Coefficient of Agreement for Nominal Scales."
#' *Educational and Psychological Measurement* 20(1): 37-46.
#'
#' - Kendall, M.G. 1938. "A New Measure of Rank Correlation."
#' *Biometrika* 30(1/2): 81--93.
#'
#' - Scott, William A. 1955. "Reliability of Content Analysis: The Case of
#' Nominal Scale Coding." *Public Opinion Quarterly* 19(3): 321--5.
#'
#' - Signorino, Curtis S. and Jeffrey M. Ritter. "Tau-b or Not Tau-B: Measuring
#' the Similarity of Foreign Policy Positions." 43(1): 115--44.
#'
#' ## Citations for the Underlying Data Informing the Similarity Measure
#'
#' Haege (2011) also suggests you cite the underlying data informing the
#' similarity measure, whether it is UN voting or alliances. In his case,
#' he recommended a Voeten citation from 2013 and the alliance data proper.
#' In the case of the alliances, I know Gibler's (2009) book is recommended
#' even if the alliance data have since been updated (and reflected in this
#' measure). In the UN voting data, my understanding is the 2017 paper in
#' *Journal of Conflict Resolution* is also the preferred citation.
#'
#' - Bailey, Michael A., Anton Strezhnev, and Erik Voeten. 2017.
#' "Estimating the Dynamic State Preferences from United Nations Voting Data."
#' *Journal of Conflict Resolution* 61(2): 430--456.
#'
#' - Gibler, Douglas M. 2009. *International Military Alliances, 1648-2008*.
#' Washington DC: CQ Press.
#'
#' @examples
#' \dontrun{
#' # just call `library(tidyverse)` at the top of the your script.
#' library(magrittr)
#' # The function below works, but depends on
#' # running `download_extdata()` beforehand.
#' cow_ddy %>% add_fpsim()
#'
#' # Select just the two kappa measures that are suggested defaults.
#' # `kappaba`: kappa for binary alliance data if you have pre-WWII data.
#' # `kappavv`: kappa for UN voting data if you just post-WWII data.
#' cow_ddy %>% add_fpsim(keep=c("kappaba", "kappavv"))
#'
#' }

add_fpsim <- function(data, keep) {

  if (length(attributes(data)$ps_data_type) > 0 && attributes(data)$ps_data_type %in% c("dyad_year", "leader_dyad_year")) {

    if (!all(i <- c("ccode1", "ccode2") %in% colnames(data))) {

      stop("add_fpsim() merges on two Correlates of War codes (ccode1, ccode2), which your data don't have right now. Make sure to run create_dyadyears() at the top of the pipe. You'll want the default option, which returns Correlates of War codes.")


    } else {

      if (!file.exists(system.file("extdata", "dyadic_fp_similarity.rds", package="peacesciencer"))) {

        stop("Dyadic foreign policy similarity data are stored remotely and must be downloaded separately.\nThis error disappears after successfully running `download_extdata()`. Thereafter, the function works with no problem and the dyadic trade data (`cow_trade_ddy`) can be loaded for additional exploration.")

      } else {

        fpsim_data <- readRDS(system.file("extdata", "dyadic_fp_similarity.rds", package="peacesciencer"))


        if (!missing(keep)) {
          fpsim_data <- subset(fpsim_data, select = c("year", "ccode1", "ccode2", keep))
        } else {
          fpsim_data <- fpsim_data
        }

        fpsim_data %>%
          left_join(data, .) -> data

        return(data)

      }

    }

  } else if (length(attributes(data)$ps_data_type) > 0 && attributes(data)$ps_data_type %in% c("state_year", "leader_year")) {

   stop("add_fpsim() right now only works with dyadic data (either dyad-year or leader-dyad-year).")



  } else  {
    stop("add_fpsim() requires a data/tibble with attributes$ps_data_type of leader_dyad_year or dyad_year. Try running create_dyadyears() or create_leaderdyadyears() at the start of the pipe.")
  }

  return(data)
}

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peacesciencer documentation built on March 24, 2022, 5:06 p.m.